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Operation greenway is a project to create a new nation for citizens of the world. We need people to get involved by reading the draft constitution and provinding feedback, as well as people pledging citizenship. Like any nation, greenway needs citizens. The more people who get involved with the project, the better.

The project originally started in 2012, when I was thinking to myself how I could make all of my money growing marijuana. Marijuana is still illegal in much of the USA where I Ghost Liberty live. I thought to myself that owning my own island would work and began doing research. I could not claim that the law of the nation whose land I was occupying was null and void, the laws of the nation who really owns the island would apply and I could not grow pot. What If I were to create my own country? I did the research and settled on a massive ammending of the united states constitution to be trhe best template cor making the laws of the new nation. That is what started greenway.

As to where the land for the nation, I couldn't find anywhere to put the greenway. I decided on a seamount in the southern atlantic ocean near south america for a seasteading operation that would incorperate oceanic platforms, and dredged artificial island in the center to form all 9 states with 36 initial representatives which forms the symmetry of the sizes each state receives for land allocation. This component of the project is called atlantis. There are also plans to claim some of antartica and the moon as well as mars.

Greenway is a micronation project for an artificial island or seastead in the southern Atlantic ocean. It is based on the united states historically and is itself mostly a compilation of amendments to the us constitution at this moment

All drugs have been legalized in greenway, similar to portugual decriminalization but enabling everybody to posess personal amounts and to apply tor licenses from the state.

Greenway has a cannabis fiat dollar and a treasury fully reserved in silver and copper. The fiat currency is called a greenback which is worth fair market value of cannabis. The name greenway signifies the government being green sector in both engineering and cannabis, making greenway the greenest nation in the world.

The right to bear armms is assured in greenway. The most libertarian laws in the world exist for firearms in greenway, enabling everybody eighteen or older to bear a diversity or arms and body armor.

The peoples right to vote is expanded over americas, with a direct alternative vote system and with explicit term limits for all positions in the constitutional government.

Greenway is based on the repiblic of the united states, the constitution of greenway is a heavily amended copy of the constitution of the united states.

The greenway is currently a 6th world micronation, and a cesidian cyber territory. The more people get involved, the more likely we can reach our goals. Currently, greenway has a claim on a seamount in the south atlantic ocean. We also are investigating territory on the moon and mars.

he government is in the preliminary stages of development and the project is still young. Please do email Ghost Liberty at greenway(at)420blaze(dot)it and contribute to operation greenway.

The greenway is a micronation started by ghost_liberty, orgiginally as a goal to buy land and start a government where ghost would be able to grow all the marijuana they desired and make their living off of grass. The green in greenway comes not only from their marijuana but from their green practices and state sector renewable energy, greenway is also the second opensource government, where transparency is demanded from the government

Ghost liberty is currently vice president of greenway until 2018, where he will hand powers over to the next vpotus. He is the president pro tempore in the house of representitives and the first Greenway citizen.

The first opensource government was The Cesidian Root, a micronation by Dr Cesidio Tallini

This is an anonymous operation of my own design, to create a wonderful government we can actually depend. The ordeal requires you have a knack for focusing on hypotheticals and solving issues and preventing loopholes if you want to be in legislation. Anybody who wants to help, I need to get a website up and running that uses a fusion of etherpad and diffchecker with a git-hub style commit structure that is publicly viewable and searchable database with searx, all served on side by side services on tor and i2p-tahoe-laft for the people. Also on the project line up, we need citizenship papers and passports designed for 9 states + the seating district, and identification cards for all states + seating district.

there is more but i want to keep this short

we need citizens. I can authorize but I need enough people on-board first before continuing

convention that anybody wanting to join may become a federal person under such convention, and until the discharge of ghost_liberty from their position in the government, all people authorized by them shall remain federal people of the cyberterra 6th world stage of greenway under ghost_liberty, and therefore such citizens be eligible for a position in the government. This is open to the people of the world, though I prefer english speakers, spanish is also good, the problem is we need enough people that an interpreter may be provided, otherwise we need a translation service

anybody with computer server and programming skills in html5, java/script, c++, openGL and python, we need your help

the current goal is to use opensimulator as a meeting place which is all hosted on a tor or i2p distributed architecture to erect the cesidian territories on the internet.
I need anybody politically savvy to please help review the constitution and try to think with whats already in there. I am continually reviewing its provisions and updating when necessary.

right now I need to get a server hosted within a vm on linux and have the whole thing hosted over tor and i2p

Anybody wanting to help, please email me at greenway(at)420blaze(dot)it

submit to me your written application of citizenship and sign with a 64-char hexidecimal key you generate, which will be a seed in your identifiaction papers which will be issued at a later time.

Also, we need to organize a bitcoin system that can manage multiple trusted holders of the money. I need people getting mail sent to them at a certain point,

I need a resource to create identification cards and passports and have them shipped to the correct people

citizens. would you like to contribute to the greenway project by volunteering your help, please do
everybody is welcome here

https://discord.gg/B8yrscY

https://libranet.de/profile/greenway
http://w363zoq3ylux5...onation-project

greenway draft constitution alpha04.03.34
https://cdn.discorda...tution_only.txt

Greenway is a 6th world micronation, meaning that it exists in cyberterra and therefore under the montevideo convention, is a defacto nation, though it currently has no other territory secured.
http://cesidianroot.net/

operation greenway is a project to make a new nation for the citizens of the world

www.worldservice.org

---

greenway territory claims:

seastead and artificial land
lat 31° 0'55.95"S
long 35°31'37.95"W

moon
?state? 'luna'(edited)
lat 14° 3'18.05"S(edited)
long 93° 4'27.59"W(edited)

project ares
mars bio-domes
lat 85°57'8.23"S
long 101°29'28.64"E

---

Objectives:
Get people to read the greenway constitution
SUggest ammendments and structural reform to the constittuution
Get people involved in talking about thete greenway to their friends and share
Establish an internet presence with a website
Get communiity together too donate for seastead platforms
Set up seastead in southern atlantic ocean
Errect the greenway on artificial platforms established oveer the seastead

Goals include:
Establishing online presence
Getting a community established
Have first election
Claim territory
Establish the greenway

What help is needed:
We need people to spread the word and the constitution
We need petitions to congress written to try and establish greenway as the new united states constitution
We need people to read the constitution and propose ammendments
We need people to brainstorm with Ghost Liberty about what direction to take the project


***
***
***

doc_info::declaration-of-independence-and-draft-constitution-of-greenway-alpha04.03.35-including-additional-materials

Irisland/Greenway/Terranullius
#DD30A95887DEBF91455CA42D9FAAE5CC5AA4CB7E2880A2E3E2CE202EF41379F1
of gaia/earth, descended old world apes, homo sapiens
2016AD

***
The declaration of Greenwegian independence
***

In the age of reason, we the people cannot withstand to deny the powers that be.

Tyrannical forces, employed by our government, imposed on the people through strategic, psychological oppression, must cease to exist.

The proximity of our fate has caused us to reexamine the truths that we hold to be self-evident. All men are created by nature and are curiously and wonderfully made.

Therefore, our unalienable rights of Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness are to be valued by all of whom that desire such qualities and secured by governmental entities, instituted by the people, monitored by the people, and most importantly,for the best interests of the people. However, our government has forsaken its oath; hence, the trust once established and respected for our leaders has been demolished as deception pollutes the once, free air of our homeland.

In order to survive, the time has come for us to reclaim our freedom. No more shall we suffer and be passive as our government attempts to subjugate our civil liberties; our tolerance has grown cold. To authenticate our speech, facts will bear witness to our assertion:

The government has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people;

The government has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation;

The government has embraced oligarchy, although the Law of the Land forbids it, and which also imposes on our personal, political, and economic freedoms;

The government has failed to disclose information on acts of terrorism, both home and abroad, although truth is a fundamental belief that should be shared and practiced by all Greewegians;

The government has engaged in preemptive war without the civilian control of the military;

The government has permitted the president to launch an unconstitutional invasion of an independent nation without Congress declaring war on that nation; that which has not been justified by the common defense of the Greenway;

The government has allowed the president to be the commander in chief in times when he was not called into the actual service of the Greenway;

The government has used false flag terrorism and staged provocations in an effort to justify their malicious objectives for global control;

The government has in many cases, verboten our right to petition and peacefully assemble for a redress of grievances;

The government has denied the presence of political diversity and has ruled our country by a dual-party system;

Throughout the course of these Oppressions, many of us were ignorant to the fact that our leaders were engaged in such atrocities. Some of us feared knowing the truth; and instead, negated the facts as a defense mechanism to mask our disappointment. Amongst the few, however, the truth was transparent, as we wrestled against the pressures of conformity. Yet, we persevered and we will no longer allow our government to be deaf to the voice of justice nor dilatory in amending the current state of our nation.

We, therefore, the people of the Greenway, re-declare our popular sovereignty. We are the ultimate authority of our government and our nation. We expect and demand that the our government will belay from secrecy and cloth itself in truth and integrity. We reject the status quo and are united in our pursuit to bring into fruition the constitutional and foundational precepts of our great nation.

This one nation of people under the universe shall have a new birth of freedom, and will ensure that government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth.

***
THE DRAFT CONSTITUTION OF THE GREENWAY AND SOVEREIGN PERSONS
(REV. A04.03.35)
***

PREAMBLE

We the People of our Greenway, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the Greenway of sovereign persons.

We the people who ordain and establish this Constitution intend the rights protected by this Constitution to be the rights of natural persons.

The rights protected by the Constitution of the Greenway are the rights of natural persons and do not extend to for-profit corporations, limited liability companies, or other private entities established for business purposes or to promote business interests under the laws of any state, the Greenway, or any foreign state. People, person, or persons as used in this Constitution does not include corporations, limited liability companies or other corporate entities established by the laws of any state, the Free country Greenway, or any foreign state, and such corporate entities are subject to such regulation as the people, through their elected state and federal representatives, deem reasonable and are otherwise consistent with the powers of Congress and the States under this Constitution.

By the authority of the Declaration of Independence, which recognizes that governments are instituted to secure the rights of people and derive their just powers from the consent of the governed, and of the Constitution.

Therefore, as all power of governance is inherent in the people, we the people of Greenway declare that all [people] when they form a social compact are equal in right: that all power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their peace, safety, and happiness; and they have at all times a right to alter, reform, or abolish the government in such manner as they may think proper.

Such corporate and other private entities established under law are subject to regulation by the people through the legislative process so long as such regulations are consistent with the powers of Congress and the States and do not limit the freedom of the press.

ARTICLE I

SECTION. 1.

All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the Greenway, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives that shall be responsible for evaluating any potential changes to legislation and submitting independent analysis on whether proposed alterations are in keeping with the standards and laws set forth herein.

All government institutions or facilities shall be built using green engineering and use renewable energy as well as environmentally friendly utilities or services and sustainable waste management practices.

All government hired contractors shall use cannabis, bamboo, or other renewable paper and naturally based ink when providing printing services to units of federal, state, and local government or school districts unless the unit of government or school district determines that another type of paper or ink is required to assure high quality and reasonable pricing of the printed product.

Congress and the States shall have the power to regulate and set limits on all election contributions and expenditures, including a candidate's own spending, and to authorize the establishment of political committees to receive, spend, and publicly disclose the sources of those contributions and expenditures. Congressional elections shall encourage grassroots bipartisan participation in the funding of campaigns, and for other purposes.

No corporate and other private entities shall be accepted in making contributions or expenditures in any election of any candidate for public office or the vote upon any ballot measure submitted to the people.

No person who maintains membership in a secret society, or who takes an oath to protect himself or another person from due process of law nor any person who espouses a philosophy or spirituality/religion which undermines the separation of powers inherent to a limited government and a free people shall be eligible for a position in the government.

The government of Greenway will operate with the principle of transparency, respecting all natural persons.

If there is any significant doubt concerning whether an official has a power, or a person has an immunity from the exercise of a power, the presumption shall be that the official does not have the power, or conversely, that the person has the immunity.

On all constitutional issues precedents may only be regarded as persuasive and never binding, and binding stare decisis shall not be used as a rule of construction.

Constitutional text shall be construed only on historical evidence of the meaning and understanding of the terms for, first, their ratifiers, and second, their framers.

Equity and prudential decisions shall not be regarded as precedents.

All power of suspending laws or the execution of laws by any authority, without the consent of the representatives of the people in the legislature is injurious to their rights, shall not to be exercised.

The elections of representatives in the legislature ought to be free and frequent, and all men having sufficient evidence of permanent common interest with and attachment to the Community ought to have the right of suffrage: and no aid, charge, tax or fee can be set, rated, or levied upon the people without their own consent, or that of their representatives so elected, nor can they be bound by any law to which they have not in like manner assented for the public good.

No law shall introduce any quotas, whether based on gender, spirituality/religion, race or other personal background, for any positions within any body of the Public Administration; all Persons applying for employment with the Public Administration shall be selected solely based on their merit and no other criteria shall be used; standards of all examinations conducted by any body of the Public Administration prior to offering employment shall equally apply to all Persons regardless of gender, spirituality/religion, race or other personal background.

No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the Greenway, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the Greenway, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the Greenway, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

SECTION. 2.

The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, they shall each be limited to one term of six years.

No Person shall be a Representative who is not a citizen of the Greenway.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been twelve Years a Citizen of the Greenway, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which they shall be chosen.

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons and excluding the indigenous population not taxed. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the Greenway, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed two for every fifty thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State#1 shall be entitled to chuse three, State#2 four, State#3 six, State#4 six, State#5 four, State#6 two, State#7 five, State#8 four, and State#9 two.

After the first enumeration required by the first article of the Constitution, there shall be one Representative for every thirty thousand, until the number shall amount to one hundred, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall be not less than one hundred Representatives, nor less than one Representative for every forty thousand persons, until the number of Representatives shall amount to two hundred; after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall not be less than two hundred Representatives, nor more than one Representative for every fifty thousand persons

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

The people of Greenway shall choose their House Speaker and other government Officers; and shall have the Power of Impeachment.

SECTION. 3.

The Senate of the Greenway shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years per term with a limit of two terms; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every second year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been twelve Years a Citizen of the Greenway, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which they shall be chosen.

The Senate shall choose their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he or she shall exercise the Office of President of the Greenway.

The Senate shall have the Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the Greenway is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the Greenway: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

SECTION. 4.

The Times, Places, and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of choosing Senators.

The Congress and Senators shall assemble at least once every day of the work week in the most sustainable manner possible (using secure electronic means broadcast publicly for all citizens to observe) until all items on the docket are resolved.

SECTION. 5.

Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

SECTION. 6.

The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the Greenway. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

The services of the Senators and Representatives will be compensated by a fixed salary equal to the median income in Greenway. They will be required to declare any other compensation and the public shall be privileged to access information relating to their banking or wealth.

No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of representatives shall have intervened.

Members of Congress shall not vote themselves pay raises without first putting it up for popular vote from all Greenwegian citizens, the employer.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which they were elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the Greenway, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the Greenway, shall be a Member of either House during their Continuance in Office.

Serving as Members of Congress and the Presidency is a privilege and an honor bestowed by the votes of the Citizens of the Greenway, not a career. Members of Congress and the President must leave after their completed term in office and return to their common lifestyle and to the common work force as any other American citizen. There will be no lifetime "retirement" salaries, bonuses or benefits provided, except bonuses that may be approved by the votes of the citizens for outstanding accomplishments for the common good of all.

SECTION. 7.

All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills; The citizens of Greenway must approve all proposed legislation via referendum.

Every Bill must be read fully in every word before which it shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the Greenway; If he or she is to read every word and approve they shall sign it, but if not they shall return it, with his or her Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to them, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if they had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law. Any Bill passed shall be subject to the general right of veto by the Citizens as expressed in the referendum; Any Bill vetoed by the Citizens in the referendum shall be considered void and shall not be revived.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the Greenway; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him or her, or being disapproved by him or her, shall be re-passed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

The word "bills" shall include proposals within bills, and any proposal for raising or receiving revenues or disbursing funds, including for borrowing or lending, shall originate in the House of Representatives, and shall specify rates, amounts, objects, and purposes.

object

SECTION. 8.

The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defense and general Welfare of the Greenway; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the Greenway;

A progressive system of direct and indirect taxation shall be utilized in the most efficient manner possible.

A tax shall be considered direct if under the totality of circumstances in which it is applied, less than half of it is likely to be passed through to a further individual purchaser of the thing taxed as a higher cost of purchase, and indirect if half or more of it is likely to be thus passed through.

An indirect tax may only be imposed on a profitable transaction or use the profit on which is or is readily convertible into a monetary equivalent.
A direct tax may not be imposed on being or having something without a profitable transaction involved.

No tax shall unduly burden the exercise of a natural or social right, or be imposed on not doing something, or offer a deduction for doing something there is no power to compel one to do, or be to regulate something not otherwise subject to a power to regulate, or be at a rate beyond the point of diminishing return of revenue.

When in doubt, a tax shall be considered direct. Taxes on corporate entities or trusts shall be considered indirect.

Taxable objects of Congress and each state or subdivision thereof shall include only profitable activities that are not exercises of preconstitutional rights, and shall not include gifts, bequests, equal exchanges, possession, existence, or inaction.

The Congress shall have no power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, except in time of war declared by the Congress.

Total outlays for any fiscal year shall not exceed total receipts for that fiscal year, unless eighty percent of the whole number of each House of Congress shall provide by law for a specific excess of outlays over receipts; Total outlays for any fiscal year shall not exceed one-fifth of economic output of the Greenway, unless eighty percent of each House of Congress shall provide for a specific increase of outlays above this amount; The limit on the debt of the Greenway held by the public shall not be increased unless eighty percent of the whole number of each House shall provide by law for such an increase by a rollcall vote; Prior to each fiscal year, the Budget Officer shall transmit to the Congress a proposed budget for the Greenway Government for that fiscal year in which total outlays do not exceed total receipts; A Bill to increase revenue shall not become law unless citizens approve this Bill in a referendum.

The Congress and the President shall assemble at least once each year to balance the budget and manage the finances of the Free country Greenway;

Power shall be vested in congress for the production and management of natural currency in the Free country Greenway administered to cover debts of persons who exchange with Greenway to produce natural currency from the wealth of the treasury; The Treasury shall be fully reserved in Silver and Copper; Commodity notes known as greenbacks shall be worth fair market trade value of cannabis for Tender in Payment of Debts;

To borrow Money on the credit of the Greenway;

The power of Congress to make all laws that are necessary and proper to regulate commerce among the several states, Native Tribes, or with foreign nations, shall not be construed to include the power to regulate or prohibit any activity that is confined within a single state regardless of its effects outside the state, whether it employs instrumentalities therefrom, or whether its regulation or prohibition is part of a comprehensive regulatory scheme; but Congress shall have power to regulate harmful emissions between one state and another, and to define and provide for punishment of offenses constituting acts of war or violent insurrection against the Greenway;

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the Greenway;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

To establish a Social Insurance Board to alleviate the hazards of old age, unemployment, illness and dependency, to raise revenue, and for other purposes;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the Greenway;

To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

To enact a library of congress to protect the information of the governing of Greenway and its citizens.

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water as well as determine the limits on emergency powers delegated to the president;

To ensure the military branch will accept persons of suitable condition to be received into the armed service of Greenway to garrison forts, positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said service;

To raise and support military peacekeeping efforts;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

The power to raise an army, navy, or other military force, other than militia, is only to hire volunteers, not to conscript the unwilling.

To provide and maintain a Navy; To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the Greenway, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the Greenway, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards and other needful Buildings;

Congress shall have power to prescribe the terms of removal of individuals holding offices created by specific statute, and requiring the consent of the Senate for appointments, including standards of good behavior for judges, but the President or other executive officers shall have power to remove officers they have the exclusive authority to appoint for positions for which there is no specific term of service;

Congress shall have power to enact statutes to punish official misconduct, including the violation of the rights, privileges, or immunities of any person, abuse of discretion, violation of any oath or affirmation, dereliction of duty, failure to supervise, or conduct unbecoming;

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the Greenway, or in any Department or Officer thereof;

Congress shall have power to authorize officials of the Greenway to execute court orders;

To recognize the Cession of States;-And

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for rehabilitating criminal code offenders by the Government of the Greenway or any Department or Officer thereof.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of spirituality/religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of choice, speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Congress shall make no law that imposes a tax or fee on a failure to purchase goods or services.

Congress has power to authorize itself or committees of itself to operate as a grand jury for the investigation of public matters, including the issuance of subpoenas, and to authorize courts to enforce its subpoenas and orders to provide information.

Congress shall have power to prescribe the penalty for contumacy, but no judge shall have power to punish by fine, imprisonment, or other penalty, other than by incarceration for a period not to exceed ten days per court session, without conviction by a jury in a trial in which another judge shall preside.

SECTION. 9.

All persons may choose to become citizens of Greenway. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the Greenway; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

All Greenway citizens and nationals, and all non-citizens while they are on the national soil of the United States, except for duly certified foreign diplomats, are subject to this Constitution and constitutional laws, and shall be deemed as having taken a oath or affirmation to "Preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign or domestic".

Citizens who are considered tribal natives are entitled to rights of territorial sovereignty, referendum to Plenary Power Doctrine, and a Trust Relationship wherein the federal government of Greenway has a duty to protect the tribes provided the courts have necessary legislative and executive authorities to effect that duty.

Treaties with Native tribes shall be honored, either with the original land taken from them being returned to them, land of equivalent value deeded to them, or money equal in current value to the land taken paid to them. Conveyance or payment shall be to a trust for each tribe controlled by that tribe. Administrative supervision of tribes shall be terminated.

No government issued papers, documents of identification, or effects, issued to a person, may consist of or resemble RFID tags, jewelry, collar or [apendage]-band, piercings, tattoos, stamps, or other bodily modifications, nor article of clothing or bodily accessory including but not limited to a patch or armtband; No government issued document may contain a microchip or smart device, nor other identification signature technology. No government issued document of identification shall request digital address, global positioning system cordinate, satellite cordinate, nor cordinates of craft or vehicle, neither shall any qualification of intelligence, education, or employment, neither those of biometrics, sampling or sequencing of bodily and/or genetic material, ever be of any requirement. However, the government will maintain a database of a unique digital and biological personal identifier for each person and participation will be voluntary, yet required for public service.

No Citizen shall be deprived of their citizenship under any circumstances, nor shall he or she be extradited to another jurisdiction against his or her will.

Foreign citizens who have Cessided or renounced nationality from their country of origin may petition the Department of Immigration to seek citizenship in Greenway. Renounciation of nationality is not a pre-requisite to becoming a citizen of the Greenway.

The laws regarding a sovereign foreign citizen shall apply in the discovery of an extra-terrestrial alien race or other sentient form of intelligence from whom the disposition is considered to be sapient.

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not in any case, or under any circumstances, be denied or suspended.

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

No law shall allow for the private property be fully or partially taken for the public use without the consent of, and mutually agreeable compensation to, the owner.

No law shall create victimless and/or consensual crimes.

No law shall abridge the right of each person to do as they choose with their own person and property, so long as he or she does not interfere, by force or fraud, or the threat thereof, with the equal right of others to do as they choose with their own persons and property.

No law shall abridge the right of freedom of association; any person may associate or transact with any other person or refuse to associate or transact with any other person for any reason, and the proprietor or lawful possessor of any movable or immovable property may exclude or refuse admission to any other person.

No Person shall be convicted of any criminal offence by virtue of mere association with other Persons suspected or found guilty of the same or related offence; some form of active participation must be proven before the Court; nor shall any Person be convicted of any criminal offence for merely considering potential commitment of an offence, whether by himself or herself or together with others; some form of active planning must be proven before the Court; no Person shall be convicted of any criminal offence which would not require any form of guilty mind as a mens rea.

No law shall abridge the freedom of feeling, thought, and choice or their peaceful expression or dissemination, as in speech, press and other media, artistic depiction, or spiritual practice; nor shall any law promote or hinder any spirituality/religion, artistic culture, scientific research, gender, specific community.

No law shall abridge the right to assemble peacefully.

All people recognize the right of revolution; that is, the right to refuse allegiance to, and to resist, the government, when its tyranny or its inefficiency are great and unendurable.

No law shall restrict or hamper the free and peaceful movement of persons, goods, or capital within or across the borders of Greenway.

No law shall impose any obligations as to pursuing and/or obtaining any stage of education by any person; nor shall any law regulate the content of any curriculum used by any private school or University at any stage of education. State schools will be available and publicly funded to deliver a comprehensive curriculum of natural knowledge spanning millennia and impart wisdom on scholars. Parents or legal guardians have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

No law shall oblige any person to acquire any form of insurance and/or pension scheme, nor shall it provide any financial incentive in that respect.

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken. Participation in a Census is voluntary, but recommended.

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

No branch of the Public Administration shall finance, or partially finance, any private organisation, corporation or service contracted between any natural Persons; no assets shall be transferred by any branch of the Public Administration, be it in the form of a loan, non-repayable grant or periodic payments, to any legal and/or natural Person unless as remuneration for contracted goods and/or services necessary for the functioning of the Public Administration as envisaged in the Constitution.

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time; a regular real-time Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published and constantly updated.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the Greenway; And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

A title of nobility shall consist of any legislated or judicially conferred privilege or immunity, not enjoyed by all, or to the detriment of others, that is not essential for the performance of legitimate official duties, and a grand jury may authorize civil or criminal prosecution of an official for exceeding his jurisdiction or abusing his discretion.

No branch of the Public Administration shall give any form of foreign aid to any state or entity, whether directly or via any international institution, be it a non-repayable grant, loan or any other financial support; nothing in this provision shall prevent the Public Administration from meeting its financial liabilities flowing from the membership in any intergovernmental organisation.

No branch of the Public Administration shall contract with any legal or natural Person, state or entity for the purposes of acquiring data it itself is not entitled to acquire under this Constitution or any laws passed in accordance therewith; nor shall any branch of the Public Administration be allowed to procure any legal or natural person to commit what it itself is not entitled to commit under this Constitution or any laws passed in accordance therewith.

The power to regulate shall consist only of the power to restrict the attributes or modalities of the object regulated, and not to prohibit all attributes or modalities, or impose criminal penalties.

No regulation, ordinance, or other rule issued as anything but an act of Congress shall have the force of law on the general public, but may be applied only to government agents

Commerce shall consist only of transfers of equitable interest and possession of tangible commodities, for a valuable consideration, from a seller or lessor to a purchaser or lessee. It shall not include transport without such transfer or interest, nor extraction, primary production, manufacturing, possession, use, or disposal, nor shall it include the other activities of those engaged in such transfers. It shall not include energy, information, or financial or contractual instruments. Commerce among the states shall not include sales or leases within a state.

No power applicable to an object, or any necessary and proper power derived from it, shall be extended to other objects with which it may be aggregated or causally connected, except to separate the applicable objects from the others.

Congress shall not alter, modify or interfere in the times, places, or manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives or either of them, except when the legislature of any State shall neglect, refuse or be disabled by invasion or rebellion to prescribe the same.

Those clauses which declare that Congress shall not exercise certain powers be not interpreted in any manner whatsoever to extend the powers of Congress. But that they may be construed either as making exceptions to the specified powers where this shall be the case, or otherwise as inserted merely for greater caution.

No law shall be passed applicable to a citizen of the Greenway that is not equally applicable to the Government and its employees, or, jurors in tribunal.

The government of Greenway shall not operate any classified intelligence agencies. Intelligence gathering and artificial intelligence shall be open source and public domain.

No temporal conservation agency shall ever be erected through any legislation, by a member of the public body or under any office held, neither shall a military or police force enforce eminent domain within the nation or across temporal distributions, nor shall they enforce cross timeline jurisdiction, and all activities considered reciprocal to the government shall remain confined within the borders of the nation and it's specific territorial jurisdiction thereof, either that of the planet or the mothership, on which the nation is established.

This constitution and the powers inherent shall apply to the specific territory of which the nation is established, on the planet or mothership, and under no circumstances shall their specific territories extend outside the nation on which they are established, nor shall a confederation of nations be formed, nor any international, global, interplanetary, interstellar, galactic or intergalactic integration or compact of powers be established.

No law shall propose, consent to, or request the incorporation of the Greenway nation, or any part thereof, to any other jurisdiction. No branch of the Public Administration, nor any number of Citizens or other Residents of the Greenway, shall propose and/or consent to the incorporation of the Greenway, or any part thereof, to any other jurisdiction; a majority of two-thirds of the overall number of Representatives may assent to the incorporation of any new territory to the Greenway upon the request of its people or government with any status the Congress may determine.

SECTION. 10.

No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing than Silver and Copper or greenback commodity notes for Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

The states of Greenway shall establish their respective state banks and all state and local money shall be deposited therein. The state bank will loan and invest its funds exclusively within their state, and shall prioritize sustainable development and enhancing the welfare of state residents. The state bank shall accept business and personal deposit accounts. All records of the state bank shall be open and public. The right of citizens to establish private banks and financial services is guaranteed though those institutions shall be regulated by the legislation of congress and the several states.

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the Greenway; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Congress.

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

ARTICLE II

SECTION. 1.

The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the Greenway of soverign persons. They shall hold their Office during the Term of two Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:

The President and Vice President shall be elected jointly by the direct vote of the citizens of the Greenway, without regard to whether the citizens are residents of a State.

The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of Senators and Representatives in Congress from that State, except that the legislature of any State may prescribe less restrictive qualifications with respect to residence and Congress may establish uniform residence and age qualifications.

The persons having the greatest number of votes for President and Vice President shall be elected, so long as such persons have a majority of the votes cast using a system of numbered ballots.

Each elector shall cast a single vote jointly applicable to President and Vice President. Names of candidates may not be joined unless they shall have consented thereto and no candidate may consent to the candidate's name being joined with that of more than one other person.

No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than three times, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of President more than once.

The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any candidate for President or Vice President before the day on which the President-elect or Vice President-elect has been chosen, and for the case of a tie in any election.

The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the Greenway, directed to the President of the Senate; -- The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; -- The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.-- The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the Greenway.

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the Greenway.

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or, a naturalized Citizen of the Greenway, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been eighteen years a resident within the Greenway.

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of their Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which they shall have been elected, and they shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the Greenway, or any of them.

Before they enter on the Execution of their Office, they shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:--"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the Greenway, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Greenway."

The terms of the President and the Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3rd day of January, and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

SECTION. 2.

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the Greenway, and of the armed forces, when called into the actual Service of the Greenway; he or she may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and they shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the Greenway, except in Cases of Impeachment.

All acts of war by the, Except in the event of an attack or invasion, the authority of Congress to declare war must be established through a Congressional Declaration of War, as well as a majority cast thereon a nation-wide referendum of the popular vote. In repelling immediate invasion or attack, the federal government may only act within foreign countries for one week without an official Declaration. At times of official peace, the decision to aid, assist, or oppose any foreign government or revolutionary movement will be reserved to the people, as individuals.

The people are reserved the right to delegate and review by voting action to either deny or grant the executive military branch exercise the ability to declare war.

Whenever war is declared the President shall immediately conscript and take for use by the Government all the public and private war properties, yards, factories, and supplies, together with employees necessary for their operation, fixing the compensation for private properties temporarily employed for the war period at a rate not in excess of 4 percent based on tax values assessed in the year preceding the war.

The President is authorized to use the Armed Forces of the Greenway as they determine is to be necessary and appropriate in order to defend the national security of the Greenway. If the president and the armed forces determine they are compelled by a threat posed to Greenway who under further diplomatic or other peaceful means alone either will not adequately protect Greenway from the continuing threat posed by another nation, the resolution of war powers shall proceed through Congress through specific statutory authorization.

In the event that emergency powers are declared, the president nor any other government official shall seek to circumvent any rights or protections offered under this constitution.

The President is authorized to declare such national emergency. Such proclamation shall immediately be transmitted to the Congress and published in the Federal Register. Any provisions of law conferring powers and authorities to be exercised during a national emergency shall be effective and remain in effect only when the President has been granted permission to proceed from congress and such orders are found to be in accordance of the rights of people and resources insured to them.

The president may not issue a command, nor shall any act of congress or the legislation of the several states, to confiscate the resources of any right, benefit, substantive or procedural, against parties of Greenway, its agencies, its officers, or any person theirin.

They shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he or she shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the Greenway, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

In case of the removal of the President from office or of their death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he or she is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his or her office, and until he or she transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President. Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he or she shall resume the powers and duties of their office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his or her office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of their office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of their office.

SECTION. 3.

They shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he or she shall judge necessary and expedient; he or she may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he or she may adjourn them to such Time as they shall think proper; they shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; they shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the Greenway.

If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of their term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

SECTION. 4.

The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the Greenway, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

ARTICLE III

SECTION. 1.

The judicial Power of the Greenway, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. It shall be the duty of the Judiciary to strike down as void and unlawful any laws in conflict with the Constitution. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior for a non-renewable term of eighteen years, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

The Salary of a Judge shall not be encreased [sic] or diminished during his continuance in Office, otherwise than by general regulations of Salary which may take place on a revision of the subject at stated periods of not less than seven years to commence from the time such Salaries shall be first ascertained by Congress.

SECTION. 2.

The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the Greenway, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;--to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;--to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;--to Controversies to which the Greenway shall be a Party;--to Controversies between two or more States;--between a State and Citizens of another State;--between Citizens of different States;--between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

Judicial officers shall consist of all persons sworn to duty in a court of the United States or subdivisions thereof, including but not limited to court presidents, judges, magistrates, clerks, bailiffs, attorneys, witnesses, trial jurors, or recorders.

Subsequently appointed presidents, judges, magistrates, and clerks shall not be appointed permanently to a particular court, but periodically reassigned to courts and cases by sortition, with presidents or judges reassigned at random to courts each year, and at random to cases, other officials other than jurors assigned to courts for up to four years, and trial jurors selected at random to each case.

The judicial decisions in every court of the Greenway and of every state shall be made under the common law terms and rules of due process and construction in effect in the Greenway that do not conflict with this Constitution or statutes enacted within its authority.

Intervenors in cases who argue in defense of the Constitution shall not be excluded or impeded, in trial or appeal, in the courtroom or outside it, or in presenting legal arguments to juries.

Any multimember judicial panel must be unanimous to sustain a claimed power of government against the claim of a citizen that the government lacks such power. If there is any doubt concerning whether an official has a delegated power, the presumption shall be that he does not. Courts shall not defer to the judgment of legislative or executive officials, but shall require strict proof of their findings or authority, with a presumption of nonauthority.

Opinions of all courts, majority, concurring, or dissenting, shall be signed by each judicial officer participating, and all decisions and opinions shall be published except for state secrets. The summary, findings, orders, and commentary shall be clearly separated and labeled as such.

The Judicial power of the Greenway shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the Greenway by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

Articles regarding our republic including this constitution are opensource and will be issued to citizens at request, and a dutiful amount of time shall be given for a person to review a manuscript of rights and laws related to an offense at their request before legal action shall proceed.

An accused who does not speak the language in which the criminal proceedings are conducted shall be provided without expense with the services of an interpreter.

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

No governmental Representative shall be precluded from taking part in any legislative vote by virtue of being detained prior to his or her trial; no judge of any Court of the Greenway shall be detained on suspicion of any criminal offence unless with an express consent of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, or if unable to reach or incapacitated, any other Justice of the Supreme Court.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment; shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

A crime, whether under the laws of the Greenway or a State, shall be considered to have been committed at the point in space and time where mens rea and actus reus concur, not where the harm is caused. Territorial jurisdiction for treason, piracy, and offenses against the law of nations is not confined to the territory of the Greenway, but personal jurisdiction for treason is confined to Greenway citizens.

No federal nor the state official shall, without presentation of a warrant demand the identification of any person or be quartered or be allowed admittance in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war or declared emergency, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, papers, homes [and], effects, and electronic communications and data, from unreasonable searches, seizures, and storage; and no warrant to search any place, or seize any person or thing, or access electronic data or communication, shall issue without particularly describing the place to be searched, or the person or thing to be seized or put under surveillance, or the data or communication to be accessed, as nearly as may be; nor without probable cause, supported by written oath or affirmation.

No information persued in an investigation or otherwise obtained under a warrant, may request access to and/or search and scan and/or seize, the nueral pathways; which include but are not limited to the biological or electronic brain and nueronal aparatus of an individual; No warrant may be issued requesting to search and seize or otherwise request access to a nueronet or Artificial Intelligence directly trained by headgear or nueronal aperatus, nor on account of a True Intelligence residing within a person, whether of biologic or mechologic root, including any intelligence whom the disposition of which is considered to be sapient.

Where evidence is found to be illegally obtained, those who obtained such evidence will be subjected to criminal prosecution.

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the armed forces, when in actual service in time of War or public danger.

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law; in any event, no Person shall be convicted of a criminal offence later than a year after a Warrant permitting the detention of such Person was executed in connection with that offence; should said Person escape or allegedly commit any subsequent criminal offence, a new Warrant for custody may be issued.

In criminal cases, the people shall have the right to the following:
(1) to a speedy and public trial;
(2) to trial by an impartial jury composed of twelve Citizens;
(3) to be informed of nature and cause of the accusation;
(4) to confront witnesses and to compel witnesses to appear in court;
(5) to the assistance of legal counsel free of charge where appropriate;
(6) to be presumed innocent until proven guilty;
(7) not to be compelled to be a witness against himself or herself;
(8) not be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.

No person shall either before or after trial be held incommunicado.

No private warden institution may manage inmates nor open a prisonmate labor camp. Management of inmates and prison institutions are turned over to the individual powers of the states respectively.

The criminal justice system shall practice restoartive justice in criminal justice processes; Practices and programs reflecting restorative purposes will respond to crime by identifying and taking steps to repair harm, involving all stakeholders, and, transforming the relationship between communities and their governments in responding to crime.

The legislation of the several states shall set forth time frames whose periods prescribed consist a statue of limitations where affected parties must take action to enforce rights, seek penalties under law and seek redress after injury or damage.

No law shall retroactively change the legal consequences and/or status of actions that have been already committed, or relationships that already existed, before the enactment of said law.

The claim and exercise of a constitutional right cannot be converted into a crime.

No person shall be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of a penalty.

No person shall be convicted, sentenced, or imprisoned without due process of law.

No person shall be detained without trial for more than twenty-four hours otherwise than in pursuit of a Warrant and no Warrants shall be issued, but upon probable cause, supported by appropriate order and unless it is absolutely necessary for the protection of others, and no detention in pursuit of such a Warrant shall be longer than it is absolutely necessary to bring an accused to trial.

At each level of appeal a case shall first be heard by a randomly selected panel of three, appealable to a randomly selected panel of nine, and thence appealable to either a randomly selected or en banc panel of twenty-seven, depending on the number of judges assigned to that court.

When an individual in under medical hold, being detained, or held prisoner, cannot afford an attourney, one will be appointed for them by the court, and they may choose to be forwarded to an alternative court appointed legal council for alternative opinion and course of legal action or to submit a case of appeal.

In all suits of law, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the Greenway, than according to the rules of the common law.

In all trials in which there are mixed questions of law and fact, including all criminal jury trials, and all jury trials in which government officials or agents, whether general, state, or local, shall be a party, parties shall have the right not to have decisions by the bench on questions of law made before all arguments can be made before the jury, excepting only arguments on defense motions in limine that cannot be made without disclosing evidence properly excluded. Jurors shall receive copies of all applicable constitutions, statutes, court precedents, and legal arguments, including those of intervenors and amici curiae, and access to an adequate law library in which they can do research.

Any question of which court, national, state, or local, shall have jurisdiction, shall be decided by a grand jury of citizens selected at random, if possible, from outside the jurisdictions of the courts in contention.

No person shall be unreasonably impeded from access to a randomly selected grand jury of 24, who, if they should return an indictment or presentment, may appoint that person or any other to prosecute the case, and shall decide which court, if any, has jurisdiction, and whether any person shall have official immunity from suit.

A person who has been arrested, detained, imprisoned, tried, or sentenced either illegally or in error or contrary to law or the Constitution shall have the right to fair compensation for the whole period of incarceration; all Persons placed under a valid arrest who have their charges subsequently dropped or dismissed at a Preliminary Hearing shall have the right to fair compensation for any and all days spent incarcerated from the twenty-fifth hour of detention onwards; such compensation shall be paid by the Secretariat of the Judiciary; Persons wrongfully convicted shall have a separate right to fair compensation as prescribed by law. Any detention, imprisonment, or sentence, tried and/or held illegally, will result in the pubic official being punished.

Excessive bail and/or fines shall not be required or excessive terms of incarceration, excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted; nor shall the Criminal Court sentence a defendant who has been convicted of a criminal offence to prolonged incarceration should such offence alone have inflicted no harm on any Person.

All defendants in criminal proceedings shall have the right to attend Court proceedings, to be informed of criminal charges and of his or her rights, to compel witnesses to appear in Court for examination, and to examine all evidence gathered against him or her, including any information which has been classified as a state secret should the Prosecution wish to employ such evidence; in such cases, the proceedings shall take place in camera and all Persons involved shall take an oath of secrecy for the period the relevant information remains classified.

All defendants in criminal proceedings shall have the right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty and to not be compelled to be a witness against himself or herself, or such other Persons as may be prescribed by law, without any negative inference; the Prosecution shall at all times carry the legal burden of proof, discharged beyond reasonable doubt, in relation to the defendant's guilt, including disproving any defence envisaged by the law which he or she might raise; nothing in this provision shall prevent the creation of defences which require the defendant to discharge the evidential burden of proof by raising the issue of defence available to him or her.

All Persons held against their will by the Public Administration under any circumstances whatsoever shall have the right to be assisted by effective legal counsel and an interpreter, should they not speak the language of interrogation or court proceedings, and in case of trial, to have reasonable time for the preparation of their case; services of a counsel and an interpreter shall be contracted personally or, in criminal proceedings where a Person is not able to afford it, they shall be provided by the Secretary of the Judiciary with the possibility to subsequently recover reasonable expenses should a defendant be convicted and the verdict not be overturned by the Supreme Court.

No torture or cruel or degrading treatment shall be inflicted by any Agent or Member of the Public Administration or under the supervision or approval thereof against any Person; nor shall any Person be rendered to any state or group should there be a reasonable suspicion that the aforementioned may inflict such treatment on such Person; nor shall any experiments, medical or otherwise, be conducted against any Person without his or her express and informed consent; no Individual shall be medically examined or otherwise tested unless pursuant to a Warrant or with the Individual's express and informed consent.

No Agent of the Public Administration shall operate undercover without a Warrant, and such Warrant shall specify the purposes for which it was issued; no Agent whilst executing a Warrant shall exceed the scope of the authority expressly granted therein, nor shall any Agent acting undercover use any method of entrapment to obtain evidence incriminating any Person; once the function for which the Warrant was issued has been carried into effect or abandoned, the Agent shall disclose to the Court issuing the Warrant a full report of all actions undertaken and evidence gathered whilst acting undercover; no evidence obtained pursuant to a Warrant permitting an Agent to act undercover shall be admissible against any Person unless the aforementioned report and all evidence is disclosed to that Person and to the Court.

All Warrants for the purposes of criminal proceedings, other than the Supreme Warrant, shall be issued by a Judge of the Criminal Court upon request by an Agent of Law Enforcement and shall be supported by evidence of probable cause; such Warrants shall be as detailed as possible and shall refer to one Person only; every Warrant granted for a continuous action shall expire no later than after six months and may only be renewed by another Judge in accordance with ordinary procedure; any Person subject to a Warrant shall be informed without delay of its execution or, in case of a Warrant for a continuous action, once such Warrant has expired and is not renewed.

Agents of Law Enforcement executing arrests shall act openly and shall inform the detainee about the relevant rights he or she enjoys under this Constitution and any laws passed in accordance therewith; where a Person is placed under arrest, Agents of Law Enforcement shall immediately inform his or her close ones as prescribed by law about the detention.

Public officials may not lie to a person, they may only provide defacto legal advice or reccomendations in consistancy with their constitutional oath and the law of the land. A member of the public may not make false statements to a person.

No law shall prohibit video and/or audio recording where there is no reasonable expectation of privacy, including Agents of the Public Administration; nothing in this provision shall be construed as to allow for general surveillance by the Public Administration.

Officers of the law, while on active duty, such as issuing and executing a warrant or placeing an arrest, will need to wear a removeably affixed body mounted camera, when available, and there shall be a microphone present as well, which will record audio and video simultaniously and never be turned off while they are required; nothing in this provision shall be construed as to allow for general surveillance by the Public Administration.

Officers of the law and their sworn statements may be placed under review to correlate any information that they may provide and within validation of their statements, collaborated with the officers on duty, the sheriff station or prison video feed, and such footage of the prisoners under the custodial authority; Any public official interupting or otherwise tampering with the video footage evidence including any live feed, is guilty of a felony punishable by no less than five years and to be fined under this title; Members of the public may have the footage turned over to them for review when a petition is filed through freedom of information or a judge order grants the public non-classified information; Release of video and audio feeds will be provided to attourneys at request; There shall be made available to the people a publicly available internet archive of all the calls and footage released under this title; nothing in this provision shall be construed as to allow for general surveillance by the Public Administration.

No Person shall be detained or interrogated by any Agent of the Public Administration outside the jurisdiction of the Greenway.

All Persons held by any Agent or any body of the Public Administration against their will under any circumstances whatsoever shall have the right to petition the Criminal Court for a writ of habeas corpus.

All Persons arrested in error or contrary to law or the Constitution shall have the right to fair compensation for the whole period of incarceration; all Persons placed under a valid arrest who have their charges subsequently dropped or dismissed at a Preliminary Hearing shall have the right to fair compensation for any and all days spent incarcerated from the twenty-fifth hour of detention onwards; such compensation shall be paid by the Secretariat of the Judiciary; Persons wrongfully convicted shall have a separate right to fair compensation as prescribed by law.

The ability of an inmate to communicate to a lawyer, petition, and the right to vote shall not be infringed.

when a person is no longer being detained, they become an ex prisoner, or, they are no longer an inmate, then, the individual is to be released, from either that of legal custody, a county jail, prison, or other penal institution of the Greenway and the several states, and it shall be the duty of the sheriff and their deputies to prepare the inmate for release, where the inmate will be permitted to eat the last available of the day's meals provided [through the sheriffs station or from the kitchen of the penetentiary] before leaving or be discharged immediately, and at discharge of the individual from custody, that, to be included amoung their personal belongings, wages of labors performed, and discharge forms, the person being released shall be provided with either a pistol, shotgun, or a rifle, with a quantity of ammunitions suitable for three days of peacable journey amoung the trails and public ways to their home or other destination, and be supplied with three days rations. The sheriff shall pay over to a citizen who has been released from the county jail or state prison, which sum shall be assembled in silver and copper coin/s and/or bar/s, [and], greenbacks and/or cannabis, which furthermore then shall be released to the individual being discharged, and shall also be provided with a suitable means of transportation, by providing the full amount for three days worth of supplies and either carriage, locomotive, automobile, or other vehicular transit fare, as well as for supplies, to peacably journey amoung the trails and public ways to their home or other destination. When they are released, it shall be communicated to them, from either the sheriff or through authorization granted by the sheriff to the deputies of the county, through speech or other appropirate means to them once they are relased, these words, "you are free to go and may forever more be free".

Convicted criminals shall not have their liberty restricted except so far as is necessary for the protection of others, nor their property seized except so far as it is necessary to make restitution to the victim and/or to pay the costs of the criminal's capture and trial.

A person who has been arrested, detained, imprisoned, tried, or sentenced either illegally or in error shall receive fair restitution.

In fairness and equality of employability, potential workers and employees will not have to indicate on their employment forms any previous criminal charges nor have a backround check be a legal requirement by their employer.

To protect the right to privacy, anonymity in public, and liberty of the people, there shall be no neighborhood watch, as such can become Cause Stalking or Gangstalking, furthermore such neighborhood watch goes against the right to privacy, as well that no one can be accused without knowing the accusation and the accuser before him/her, while nieghborhood watching implies a person's guilt before proving their innocence.

No Person shall have his or her privacy violated by freezing of assets, searches, seizures, surveillance, accessing and gathering of his or her private personal information without his or her express and informed consent, including obtaining it from third parties and/or using digital means, unless pursuant to a Warrant, and only to the extent which is necessary to achieve the purpose for which the Warrant was issued and particularly describing the assets to be frozen, the places or Persons to be searched, the things or Persons to be seized, the Persons to be put under surveillance, including the maximum period of that surveillance, and the data to be obtained and stored, including the period for which it may be retained; nothing in this provision shall prevent the collection of information which has been made available to the public or shared voluntarily.

The people shall be secure against general and pervasive surveillance in private and public places, whether done by government or private actors, that has a chilling effect on their private and civic activities, without specific public court orders pursuant to acts of Congress for national security.

No soldier shall be inlisted for any longer term than four years, except in time of war, and then for no longer term than the continuance of the war.

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

All Members and Agents of the Public Administration knowingly or negligently acting in breach of the Constitution by failing to fulfil any obligation which may be directly imposed on them by the Constitution, or by denying any Person any right which may be bestowed on such a Person by the Constitution, shall be deemed to be committing a criminal offence punishable with incarceration for a term not exceeding three years and/or with any other punishment which the Congress may determine in the Criminal Code.

Whoever, except in cases and under circumstances expressly authorized by the Constitution or Act of Congress, willfully uses any part of the Armed Forces as a posse comitatus or otherwise to execute the laws is guilty of committing a felony and shall be imprisoned not less than five years and fined under this article; and shall be incapable of holding any office under the Greenway.

A member of the sheriff's force, militia, member of the armed forces, or whomever a member of the public body, except in cases and under circumstances expressly authorized by the Constitution or Act of Congress, willfully uses who uses overwheliming force including but not limited to using lethal force or firing before being fired upon, shall be a violation in the rules of engagement, and they are convicted of the same, as in the Rules of Engagement and Law of Armed Conflict put forth by congress through the regulation of the militia, they shall be guilty of a felony punishable by no less than ten years improsonment and fined under this article.

All Members and Agents of the Public Administration convicted of the criminal offence of acting in breach of the Constitution or of any law relevant to the position held shall cease to hold their current positions and shall no longer be eligible to hold any public office or to be employed by the Public Administration.

No torture and/or other cruel, unusual, or degrading treatment shall be inflicted by any member of any branch of the Public Administration or with consent and/or knowledge thereof; no person shall be subjected to experiments of any sort without his or her consent.

The law of trusts as of the date of ratification of this Constitution is hereby recognized as part of the common law that preceded this Constitution and was incorporated into it. The settlor, trustee, beneficiary, and the trust itself shall each be deemed as distinct persons in any court of law of the United States and any State, the trust represented therein by the trustee.

SECTION. 3.

Treason against the Greenway, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort, or the passing/ratification of any bill without reading fully in every word before which it shall have passed. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act on Confession in open Court.

A person shall not be determined to be an unprivileged enemy belligerent or be detained without trial by an impartial jury; no individual may be detained under criminal charges without trial by impartial jury for the articles Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War Hostilities determined as individuals against the Greenway or its coalition partners in which an individual has engaged, or which the individual has purposely and materially supported, are subjects consistent with the law of war and any authorization for the use of military force provided by Congress pertaining to such hostilities.

No person shall be convicted of an illegal disclosure of classified information if that piece of information proves or could be reasonably believed to be proving that any member of any branch of the Public Administration has breached, remains in breach or intends to breach the law.

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

ARTICLE IV

SECTION. 1.

Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

That each State in the Union shall respectively retain every power, jurisdiction and right which is not by this Constitution delegated to the Congress of the United States or to the departments of the Foederal [sic] Government.

For purposes of representation in the Congress, election of the President and Vice President, and article VI of this Constitution, the District constituting the seat of government of the Greenway shall be treated as though it were a State. The exercise of the rights and powers conferred under this article shall be by the people of the District constituting the seat of government, and as shall be provided by the Congress.

No State shall make any law respecting an establishment of spirituality/religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; and no money raised by taxation in any State for the support of public schools, or derived from any public fund therefore, nor any public lands devoted thereto, shall ever be under the control of any religious sect, nor shall any money so raised or lands so devoted be divided between religious sects or denominations.

The several states of the Greenway will each establish a Department of Agriculture as well as a Food and Drug Administration and an Environmental Protection Agency, to maintain their responsibilities to the people regarding the articles proscribing their duties of certifying and ensuring the purity of food and drugs as well duties through the environmental protection agencies of the several states in protecting the rights of nature and the habitability of earth.

The states of Greenway will each establish an aeronautic agency which will manage public resources of aerospace and grant commercial licenses regarding aerospace upon request after review. It shall be under the authority of the people to grant or limit the use of such technology or regulations implemented for the government, and [and] No government agent deploy such technology except as needed to properly execute the laws of the union. The use of blackboxes by the government are strictly prohibited. The right of natural persons to develop and/or operate their technologies and travel the public ways of aerospace and the [legal_terranullius] way of outerspace shall not be obstructed nor retarded or rescinded, neither any article interacrive to this one be obscrued in such a way as to impact the ability of a person coming and going as they decide in their own private manner. The right of people to establish private aerospace and outerspace services is garaunteed.

Each State respectively shall have the power to provide for organizing, arming and disciplining it's own Militia, whensoever Congress shall omit or neglect to provide for the same. That the Militia shall not be subject to Martial law, except when in actual service in time of war, invasion, or rebellion; and when not in the actual service of the United States, shall be subject only to such fines, penalties and punishments as shall be directed or inflicted by the laws of its own State.

SECTION. 2.

The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the Greenway or by any State on account of race, sexual indication, sexual preference, status of marriage, or medical disability. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

The natural right of a person to be naked in view of or within a public or private place shall be upheld. A person commits an act of public indecency if while in, or in view of, a public place the person performs a sexual act or exposes oneself with intent of arousing the sexual desire of the person or another person.

No law shall restrict the free movement of any Individual within the Greenway; all Individuals shall have the right to reside in any part of the Greenway.

Citizens have the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.

Everyone has the right to leave any country, including one's own, and to return to one's country.

The right of the citizen to travel upon the public ways, international ways, and legal terranullius, of the sea/waterway, land, areospace, or outerspace, and to transport their property thereon, either by boat, horse, carriage, automobile or other vehicle, is not a mere privilege which may be prohibited or permitted at will, but a common right which they have under the right to life, privacy, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The legislature has no power to deny to a citizen the right to travel upon the public way and transport their property in the ordinary course of their inclination or pleasure.

It is the duty of a legal guardian to raise their child to the age of majority; A person who is at least sixteen years of age may submit to the state court an entry for their judgement of emancipation.

Persons sixteen years of age or older may register in the armed forces, but shall not see combat until at least eighteen years of age.

Congress shall have power to limit, regulate, and prohibit the labor of persons under eighteen years of age. The power of the several States is unimpaired by this article except that the operation of State laws shall be suspended to the extent necessary to give effect to legislation enacted by the Congress.

Citizens who seek to perform labor shall be granted an equal opportunity for employment and are ensured the right to wages at fair compensation.

People have the right to petition a government official as well as vote to have them be removed from their position.

The right of citizens of Greenway who are the age eighteen or older to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the Free country Greenway or any State by the account of sex, race, color, previous condition of servitude, or through reason of failure to pay poll tax or other tax. The right to vote and participate in elections shall not be infringed.

All votes of the people shall be by popular vote directly cast into a Ranked Choice Voting system, also known as Instant Runoff and FairVote, with a two-round system which shall consist of primary and alternative votes, wherein majority rules; In the case of unmarked ballots or ballots where indications for selection have been unmarked shall not construe representation of votes which may or not have been cast.

Considering the age of consent, it shall be from birth on upwards to fourteen where within two years and one day shall sexual contact between two youth be legally accepted as consensual. From the of age fourteen and upwards, it shall be within 4 years and one day for legally accepted consensual act of sex with another youth in their age range, and for non-penatrative or non-genitalia based sexual contact it shall be within eight years and one day for mutally consenting sexual relations to be legally accepted. From the age of sixteen and upwards, it shall be within eight years and one day of mutually consenting partners to engage in an act of sex and have it be legally accepted sexual contact. From the age of eighteen upwards, the rights consenting adults shall be upheld. These ages of consent are to be upheld in regard to regulations regarding human sexual activity amoung youth, so long as it occurs without provocation or molestation by another who is above the legal consensual age ranges and/or is not otherwise non-consensual, including but not limited to an act of predatory sexual assault or rape. Rights are reserved to the people to consent to eachother in a sexual nature.

No law shall abridge the right of persons to the control of their own bodies, nor interfere with voluntary consensual or contractual relations among adult persons, or the right to form cooperative ventures of any kind. No law shall establish and/or regulate the institution of marriage.

A plantiff who makes false statements to an official or otherwise manufactures charges in regard to an alleged case of non-consensual sexual contact shall be held criminally liable and the defendent shall be eligable for the charges against them to be pardoned and/or expunged. The legislature of the several states shall define the penalties of consensual age violation and crimes of sex.

People have the right to be in control of their own body and to know the origin or source, processes by which they are elaborated and rendered, constituents, safety or health effects, or environmental impact of the products they consume or come in contact with, including, but not limited to, food, drugs, cosmetics and household chemicals or similar products. It shall be the duty of the states, within the Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration, as well as any other department or agency appointed through legislature by the several states to regulate, enforce, and fulfill duties of ensuring the purity of commercial food and drug products, labeling of certain household products, batch identification and genome sequencing of genetically modified organisms, and to provide official certifications for products such as their being environmentally friendly, organic, renewable or sustainable as well as any other duties assigned by the legislature. The right of individualts to establish private certification services is garaunteed.

No consciousness controlling transceiver, mindwave monitoring or alteration technology, psychotronic, bioelectric interface, nor bio-feedback or interuptive device, may ever be operated on any person unless under the un-coereced non-compulsed informed consent of an individual who is seeking personal therapy, in course of medical treatment, or other purpose constituting fair use of the technology in regards to the individual person's persuit of life, privacy, liberty, and happyness, nor shall any such purpose be construed for the deployment by a member of the public body, branch of public office, government hired contractor, or private investigator on any of the people residing or migrating within the territories of Greenway, within a governmental facility or any juridictional fort or installation irregardless if there is probable cause or a warrant issued.

The people have a right to treat their own illnesses and to abstain from medical treatment. People have the right to free from electro-shock therapy or other unduly hazadrous procedures. You may choose to be forwarded to another caretaker of your choice if necessary for alternative opinion and course of treatment.

Free health care is guaranteed for all sectors of the population to state public health services. The right to establish private health services is guaranteed.

Patients with a qualifying medical condition may be allowed access any medical treatment with the discretion of a physician to prescribe it; "qualifying medical condition" means any condition for which medical treatment would be beneficial, as determined by the patients physician.

All Individuals shall have the right to control their own bodies; no Individual shall be subjected to any medical treatment without his or her express and informed consent absent exigent circumstances where an Individual is incapable of consenting; should life-saving experimental treatment become available at the time a Person is incapable of giving his or her consent, the doctors shall be allowed to apply to the Civil Court for the permission to conduct such treatment.

Individuals may not be placed under medical hold for periods of time exceeding beyond seventy-two hours without consent from the either the parent, legal guardian, or through a custodian appointed by the judiciary in due process through the court of law.

A woman's right to an abortion permits a woman to terminate her pregnancy for any reason during the first trimester. The power to regulate the circumstances under which pregnancy may be terminated after the first trimester is reserved to the states.

A persons body , organs, and genetics are their own, and no medical treatment or prescription issued, through implantation, or through other means integrated into the person, that when [bartered] through either by partial-payment, credit, or other procedure which has procured a debtor, may ever be repossesed, whether by any debtor or contractual repossesion of lease, nor through any other means otherwise occur, though this provision shall not affect the legal aquisition of cadavers, organs, or genetics though their donor.

Cannabalism is the defilement of a persons flesh and body for the purpose of butchering, cooking, and/or eating. Any person who wilfully ingests the flesh or blood of a human being is guilty of cannibalism. It shall be an affirmative defense to a violation of the provisions of this section that the action was taken under extreme life-threatening conditions as the only apparent means of survival. It is otherwise illegal to consume a primate such as a human or an otherwise sapien's flesh, even if the victim died of natural causes. A dead person is considerd organic medical waste and must be dispoed of in a sanitary manner. Cannibalism is punishable by imprisonment in state prison not exceeding fourteen years.

No person may be cloned nor genetically modified unless the procedure has been found suitable through open scientific research reviewed and audited by the people, through individually authorized queries for the research and/or regulations to be reviewed and/or audited, and such specific research to take place shall be intiated through a referandum of the people, which referandum will furthermre require a vote cast by the people for authorizing the specific the research and regulation to then be regulated under the legislature of congress and the several states, regarding the pursuit of medical treatment in illness, disease, or infertility of a person, [and] only through the un-coerced, non-compulsed, and informed consent granted of parties involved. If an infraction of this provision occurs, victims are provided protection under this constitution. This article is to be upheld and maintained through congress and the several states.

Wherever occurring in their natural state, fish, wildlife, and waters are reserved to the people for common use. The privately owned lands and their resources belong to the property owner and are not subject to requisition or appropriation.

The manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating substances within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the Greenway and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for consumption purposes is are legal for use by citizens who are eighteen or older; This includes the organic parent sources, raw or dry material or preparations thereof and also the extracts of any drug related compounds found within living organisms. Personal use of substances controlled by the Food and Drug Administration without a license are not unlawful and shall not be an offense. Personal use of substances includes but is not limited to; Possessing, using or consuming, displaying, purchasing, or transporting drug accessories or personal amounts of controlled substances; Possessing, growing, processing, or transporting personal amounts of drug producing plants, and possession of the drugs produced by the plants; Transfer of personal amounts of drugs without remuneration to a person who is eighteen or older; Assisting another person who is eighteen or older in any way described as personal use of controlled substances. The manufacture, sale, or transportation of drug related natural or synthetic compounds are to be regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, who by request and review, grant and administer commercial licences from applications received for a controlled chemical licence. The several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Any person owning or controlling real estate or other premises who voluntarily damages or destroys a drone, [reconnicance]-satellite, or other robotic device located on the real estate or premises, on the land or with in the airspace of the premises not otherwise regulated by the aerospace agencies of the several states, shall, together with any successors in interest, if any, not be civilly or criminally liable for causing the damage or destruction to the property of such person, shall, together with any successors in interest, if any, not be civilly liable for causing the damage or destruction to the property of such person.

No government agency or member of the public body may deploy drones or other robotic surveilance or weaponized equipment on citizens, also, the members of the public office or agency of government may not deploy drones or other automated devices, except in the case of state resuers in search and rescue missions; Drones, robots, or other related automated devices, may not be used to execute the laws of the union.

As a part of common legal principles, codified Cesidian law shall be recognized in legislation regarding electronic systems.

People have a right to freely use the common electromagnetic spectrum and to operate their equipment thereon within the public or private domain; This includes but is not limited to use, experimentation, and/or operation of oscilloscope, signal generator, broadcasting or communication equipment, radio scanner, spectrum analyzer, RF imager, scientific experiment, tranceiver or transmission array, particle accelerator, lamdaser or electrolaser, electrodynamic craft, astrodynamic energy system, or other related device; The legislature has no power to deny to a citizen the right to use the electromagnetic spectrum in public or private domain and operate their equipment in the ordinary course of their inclination or pleasure, [and] No government agent deploy such technology except as needed to properly execute the laws of the union, which trust shall be under the authority of the people to grant or limit the use of such technology by the government. The use of blackboxes by the government are strictly prohibited.

It shall be a privledge of the people of the several states to decide on whether or not they want to establish a state communications commission, to provide for the people television and radio programmes, such as digital tellevision and satelite radio, as well as a phone line and internet connection, such as voip/dsl, and they may also have available for the people access to a smartphone/internet connection including but not limited to being available through gsm/wimax, as well as the modem/phone provided for the citizens to keep, on opensource openWRT, openBTS, and OpenWiMAX devices, using the money of the taxpayers to provide such, through the methods and rules establishd under the will of the people, in the legislature of the several states. The right of people to establish private communications, telephone, television, radio and internet services is garaunteed.

All citizens of Greenway are entitled to neutrality and fair access of media and may operate an information system unobstructed. No person shall be subject to circumvention within their right to fair access of accurate information. No powers shall be granted within Congress or the several states that may authorize any institution or operation of which shall attempt to use the powers, resources, or money provided to them to produce or disseminate propaganda, nor shall they transmit or in any other way distribute propaganda to any person within its boarders or abroad.

The Citizens of the Greenway shall have the access to information which relates to any aspect of the functioning of any body of any branch of the Public Administration which is not classified, and no information shall be classified unless it is absolutely necessary for the purposes of national security.

All citizens are entitled to access to State libraries institutions and free education on all levels at State educational institutions. The State shall provide financial assistance to those who distinguish themselves, as well as to students in need of assistance or special protection, in accordance with their abilities. The right to establish private education services is guaranteed.

No law shall regulate any printed materials, radio, television, the Internet or any other medium of exchange of information; no law shall regulate the rules concerning uploading, transmitting, displaying, accessing and/or publishing such information; nor shall any law introduce licensing and/or registration to infringe upon these rights; nothing in this provision shall prevent the congress from protecting the interests of Minors and/or those lacking mental capacity; publishing and/or sharing information classified as state secret or related to the work of Agents of Law Enforcement operating undercover pursuant to a Warrant shall be subject to control as described in this Constitution.

All persons have the right to a presumption of nonauthority. Any person may file, without prior consent of any court, as demandant, in the name of the people, in a court of competent jurisdiction, a writ of quo warranto, habeas corpus, prohibito, mandamus, procedendo, certiorari, scire facias, or other prerogative writ, including a demurral, and upon service of notice to respondent, respondent shall have three days, and not more than 20 days with cause, to prove his authority to do or not do what the writ demands. The writ filed shall be the summons, with no further action needed by the court, which shall not treat the writ as a petition or motion for injunctive relief. The burden of proof shall rest solely on the respondent. The court shall hold a hearing within five days of receipt of the response from the respondent, and ahead of any other business before the court except another prerogative writ. Either demandant or respondent shall have the right to trial by a jury of at least twelve, with twelve required to sustain the claim of authority of the respondent. On a writ of habeas corpus the respondent must produce the individual held regardless of the legal or factual issues, and failure to do so, unless the medical condition of the subject requires otherwise, shall result in immediate release. The order granting the relief demanded shall issue by default if a hearing is not held or a decision not made. Only the Supreme Court of the United States shall have jurisdiction to decide a writ of quo warranto, upon impeachment, to remove from office for perjury of oath, fraud, or ineligibility, or restrict the exercise of power, of the President or Vice-president, a member of Congress, or a judge of the United States, but any United States court of general jurisdiction shall have jurisdiction for lesser officials, subject to appeal to higher courts, and the President and Vice President shall have the right to a verdict by a jury composed of two adult citizens selected at random from each state

All private personal data collected by the Public Administration shall be used only for the purposes for which they were collected, shall be kept confidential and shared only with the express and informed consent of the all Persons to whom it relates, unless sharing such information is necessary for the performance of duties provided for under this Constitution; all Individuals whose data are stored by any body of the Public Administration other than Law Enforcement shall be entitled to obtain a copy of such data and require that they be destroyed if the purposes for which they were collected no longer apply; nothing in this provision shall prevent the Public Administration from storing data of Agents and Members of the Public Administration and any other legal or natural Person contracting therewith.

No law shall establish the institution of slavery, conscription, indenture, or any other form of involuntary servitude other than the Jury duty, within Greenway, or in any place subject to its jurisdiction. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. Rights are insured to the people to wear body armor and bear a diversity of arms in all variations, whether black powder fired or otherwise, in times of war or peace.

That the people have a right to keep and bear arms; that a well regulated Militia composed of the body of the people trained to arms is the proper, natural and safe defence of a free State. That standing armies in time of peace are dangerous to liberty, and therefore ought to be avoided, as far as the circumstances and protection of the Community will admit; and that in all cases the military should be under strict subordination to and governed by the Civil power.

The primary meaning of "militia" shall be "defense activity", and only secondarily those engaged in it, or obligated to engage in it. All citizens and would-be citizens have the legal duty to defend the constitutions of the Greenway and their state, and the members of society, from any threat to their rights, privileges, or immunities, in response to a call-up by any person aware of a credible threat. Any call-up that does not require everyone to respond shall select those required by sortition. Jury duty shall be regarded as a form of militia duty. Militia may not be kept in a called up status beyond the duration of an emergency. Congress and state legislatures shall have the power to enforce this duty by appropriate legislation.

Militia shall be maintained in a state of readiness sufficient to overcome any regular military force it might encounter. Those who may engage in militia shall have any weapons in common use by regular military, subject only to the directives of local elected unit commanders during operations while called up. If Congress or any state or local legislative body shall fail to provide for organizing, training, or equipping militia units, persons shall not be impeded from organizing, training, and equipping themselves independently.

There shall be no federal or state registry nor shall a permit or backround check be a requirement, nor any regulations be enacted limiting the freedom of the people, to manufacture, purchase, sell, or otherwise own any armaments, or body armor, nor shall any law obstruct a person from their constitutional right to bear arms.

No law shall abridge the right of self-defense against initiators of aggression, including the agents of the Public Administration where acting unlawfully, including the right, to own, manufacture, sell, and bear arms.

All Persons shall have the right of self-defence and/or defence of their property and constitutional Rights, and others who are under a direct and real threat, against initiators of aggression, including any Agent of the Public Administration acting unlawfully or in error; no Person shall be convicted of any criminal offence for any act or omission which took place on his or her property and which is a direct response to another Person trespassing on that property and acting in breach of the law or the Constitution resulting in such threat as described in this provision.

It is proper for law-abiding people to protect themselves, their families and others from intruders and attackers without fear of prosecution or civil action for acting in defense of themselves and others. A person is justified in using physical force upon another person to defend himself from what he reasonably believes to be the use or imminent use of unlawful physical force. In defending, a person may only use that degree of force which they reasonably believe to be necessary. The right of the people to bear arms in defense of themselves and the State shall not be questioned. The Castle Doctrine is a common law doctrine of ancient origins which declares that a home is a person’s castle. Persons residing in or visiting this Commonwealth have a right to expect to remain unmolested on or within their land, homes, or vehicles. No person should be required to surrender his or her personal safety to a criminal, nor should a person be required to needlessly retreat in the face of intrusion or attack outside the person’s dwelling or vehicle.

The federal government will reduce its weapons of mass destruction arsenal by fifty percent every year, and attempt through sincere diplomacy to have other countries to do the same.

The construction or use of Radiological, Nuclear, Biological, or Chemical weapons of mass destruction by the people or their government is hereby prohibited. Congress shall have power, on territory under its exclusive jurisdiction, and state legislatures, on territory under their exclusive jurisdiction, to forbid unsupervised possession of destructive devices or weapons each discharge of which can produce the death or injury of more than 1000 individuals over a space of 1000 square meters and a time of one hour.

No gravitoelectromagnetic drive nor string theorem machine capable of transceiving accross, manipulating, or transversing temporal or spacial distrobutions, nor cross-timeline multiverse browsing device, ever be owned or operated by any governmental agency, office, member of the public body, or government hired contractor of Greenway, on any person, place, or thing, regardless of its purposes in peace or war, jurisdiction, or otherwise. Rights to operate equipment including but not limited to gravitoelectromagnetic drives, string theorem machines, and multiverse browsers are insured to the people.

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which they fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

Legislature and other government officials are prohibited from tampering or repealing laws created by the voters without further requiring three-fourths vote from a citizens referendum to amend measure, to supersede measure, or to transfer funds designated by the measure, and only if each furthers the purpose of the measure.

In this Constitution all rights are immunities against the action of government officials, not entitlements to receive some service or benefit. Every immunity is a restriction on delegated powers, and every delegated power is a restriction on immunities. Delegated powers and immunities partition the space of public action. The exercise of a right is not subject to regulation, except to allocate use of a scarce resource, or to taxation, and only to insignificant incidental burdens by government actions at any level, unless there is an explicit exception to the contrary, in this Constitution.

SECTION. 3.

New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the Greenway; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the Greenway, or of any particular State.

SECTION. 4.

The Greenway shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

ARTICLE V

We the people of Greenway declare:

We the people recognize that our communities are under siege from the corporations that cause economic, cultural, environmental, and public harm;

We the people recognize our confinement in a system of laws that grants greater rights to corporations than to residents of our communities;

We the people recognize that this system grants corporate minorities the legal authority to override the community majority right to choose that which secures its health, safety, and wellfare;

We the people recognize that the legal system has conferred unequal power on the basis of property ownership so that those holding the most property obtain and wield superior rights;

We the people recognize that this system of law hinders and obstructs our ability to adapt to economic, cultural, and environmental change;

We the people recognize that corporate control of legislation and governance denies our right to an authentically democratic local, state, and federal representation necessary to protect our communities from corporate harms;

We the people recognize that our health, safety, welfare, and survival of our local businesses, farms, ecosystems, and neighborhoods depend on restructuring the current system of governance, because it favors corporations over community-based, democratic decision-making;

We the people recognize that, because a republic means "governance of, by, and for the people" and "consent of the governed", a republic shall exist in our communities, states, or within the Greenway;

Therefore, we now exercise our inherent and inalienable right to create an authentic republic in our communities, municipalities, and counties within our States; and We the People call on communities across the states of Greenway to:

Enact local laws and adopt charter amendments that recognize community rights for residents of the states and preserve the inherent rights of natural ecosystems to exist and flourish;

Include in those local laws and charter amendments direct challenges to the system of laws and legal doctrines that secure greater rights for corporations than for residents of our communities or natural ecosystems;

Build a statewide network of local rights-asserting communities involved in changing our legislature to incorporate the inherent self-governing authority of the people;

Join together with other state community rights networks in and all other states demanding changes to the federal Constitution that will elevate the rights of people, communities, and nature above the illegitimate "rights" of corporations and the governing authorities they control.

Persons, communities, peoples, and nations are bearers of rights and shall enjoy the rights guaranteed to them in the Constitution and in international instruments. Nature shall be the subject of those rights that the Constitution recognizes for it.

Nature, or Pacha Mama, where life is reproduced and occurs, has the right to integral respect for its existence and for the maintenance and regeneration of its life cycles, structure, functions and evolutionary processes. All persons, communities, peoples and nations can call upon public authorities to enforce the rights of nature. To enforce and interpret these rights, the principles set forth in the Constitution shall be observed, as appropriate. The States shall give incentives to natural persons and legal entities and to communities to protect nature and to promote respect for all the elements comprising an ecosystem.

Nature has the right to be restored. This restoration shall be apart from the obligation of the States and natural persons or legal entities to compensate individuals and communities that depend on affected natural systems. In those cases of severe or permanent environmental impact, including those caused by the exploitation of nonrenewable natural resources, the States shall establish the most effective mechanisms to achieve the restoration and shall adopt adequate measures to eliminate or mitigate harmful environmental consequences.

The protection of the environment is of general interest. Persons must abstain from any act that causes grave depredation, destruction or contamination to the environment. The legislation of the several states shall regulate this provision and may provide sanctions for transgressors.

The States shall apply preventive and restrictive measures on activities that might lead to the extinction of species, the destruction of ecosystems and the permanent alteration of natural cycles. The introduction of organisms and organic and inorganic material that might definitively alter the nation's genetic assets is forbidden.

No exploitation shall take place regarding the resources of earth in attempt to procure rare earth petrol-chemicals or minerals whose contributing constituents are sourced from geological reserves and considered fossil fuel, nor may such compounds be used or consumed within the territories of Greenway by public or private persons nor within trade by embargoes taking place within the territories of Greenway. In exclusion to the ban on petrol chemicals are synthetic petrol analogues considered the product of material manufacturing from renewable sources including but not limited to bio-fuel, syngas hydrocarbon cracking, production in fuel reformer or catalyst, or within assumption that source whose material contribution have not caused infraction to the petrol mineral ban. Congress and the several states who shall set forth such rules as are to be enforced through authorization granted to the state Environmental Protection Agency. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

No person shall import, manufacture, stockpile, trade, supply, distribute or sell any scheduled plastic product which is non-degradable. The scheduled plastic products must be oxo-degradable or bio-degradeable plastics and the pro-degradant used must be approved by the state Environmental Protection Agency and in such manner as prescribed. Recycled scheduled plastic products shall be marked "Recycled plastic, unsafe for contact with food". Plastics that are not scheduled shall be compostable bio-plastics without the addition of pigments or extenders, and any pigment or extender added shall be scheduled according the rules established through legislation of Congress and the several states who shall set forth such rules as are to be enforced through authorization granted to the Food and Drug Administration as well the Environmental Protection Agency. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Persons, communities, peoples, and nations shall have the right to benefit from the environment and the natural wealth enabling them to enjoy the good way of living. Environmental services shall not be subject to appropriation; their production, delivery, use and development shall be regulated by the States.

Persons, communities, peoples, nations and communities are bearers of rights and shall enjoy the rights guaranteed to them in the Constitution and in international instruments. Nature shall be the subject of those rights that the Constitution recognizes for it.

ARTICLE VI

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the (insert correct date); and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate. A Constitutional Bill proposing an Amendment to this Constitution shall be subject to the power of general veto by the Citizens as expressed in the referendum.

ARTICLE VII

All debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the Free country Greenway under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

The validity of the public debt of the Free country Greenway, government-invested-power, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the Greenway nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the Greenway, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the Greenway which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the Greenway, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

No legislative act or provision thereof shall have the force of law unless the constitutional authority for it is explicitly cited, verifiable by proving an unbroken chain of logical derivation.

A provision of a treaty or other international agreement not made in pursuance of this Constitution shall have no force or effect.

A treaty or other international agreement shall have legislative effect within the Greenway as a law thereof only through legislation, except to the extent that the Senate shall provide affirmatively, in its resolution advising and consenting to a treaty, that the treaty shall have legislative effect.

Government shall exercise no power within the territory of the Greenway, based on a treaty, not otherwise delegated to it by this Constitution, other than powers to administer trust territories or protectorates.

An international agreement other than a treaty shall have legislative effect within the Greenway as a law thereof only through legislation valid in the absence of such an international agreement.

On the question of advising and consenting to the ratification of a treaty, the vote shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against shall be entered on the Journal of the Senate.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the Greenway and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; A standardized test of intelligence shall be issued but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the Greenway.

Perjury shall consist of the violation of any oath or affirmation, including that made for public office, and Congress shall have authority to criminally punish it only when made in a forum of the United States, or by an officer or agent of the United States.

It shall be a capital offense for any official at any level of government to violate this Constitution.

Article VIII

The Ratification of the Conventions by three-fourths of the States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

The enumeration in this Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the Citizens and other residents of the Greenway, which rights are inalienable.

The powers delegated by the Constitution to the government of the United States, shall be exercised as therein appropriated, so that the Legislative shall never exercise the powers vested in the Executive or Judicial; nor the Executive the powers vested in the Legislative or Judicial; nor the Judicial the powers vested in the Legislative or Executive.

The powers not delegated to the Greenway by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

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68CDB32FD4014D0FB23261C92DA8BB7376B2B24C563FCEC6B90CE67070B2E5DA
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E509A5EBE48E66B8310DE1753EEC8BB6B09281E93AF61EBC50F1536699058DFE

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Immunitates Ammendment and Bill of Immunities
http://www.constitution.org/reform/us/immunitates.html


Due process and efficient remediation
General:
Not to be denied due notice of time, place, manner, parties, and subject of any proceeding with sufficient time to respond.

Not to be denied fair hearing and decision on the legal merits, with redress for just grievances, including damages, property, or injunctive or declaratory relief.

Not to have just remedies made inaccessible or excessively difficult or costly.

Not to be denied mandated testimony of witnesses.

Not to be denied unimpeded access to courts, court filing, and inquestries, subject only to routine scheduling.

Not to be denied direct presentation of complaints to an inquestry without the presence of any other government actor except with the consent of the inquestry.

Not to be denied standing to privately prosecute a public right without having been injured or expecting personal injury.

Not to be subject to retaliation.

Not to have admitted any plea or testimony induced by a plea agreement.

Not to have any real property or chattel taken or forfeited without civil or criminal judgment in a trial, with possession presumed to establish title unless proved otherwise.

Not to have the exercise of any immunity taxed, disabled, or restricted by statute or other rule except to allocate a scarce resource among competing claimants, unless one is a minor, which by default shall be any individual under the age of 18 unless the disabilities of minority are extended or reduced by court order.

Not to have the exercise of any right, privilege, or immunity disabled or restricted without s court order following a jury trial.

Criminal trials:
Not to be denied indictment by twelve members of a randomly selected inquestry of 23 who elect their foreperson, upon a finding that the court has jurisdiction and that there is sufficient evidence for a trial, except for persons subject to military or militia discipline, or foreign praedones.

Not to be denied service as prosecutor upon receipt of an indictment by an inquestry, subject only to consolidation by the inquestry if more than one person seeks to prosecute the same offense.

Not to be denied trial by a randomly selected jury of twelve sworn to uphold applicable constitutions in criminal cases for which the penalty is more than 90 days.

Not to have imposed excessive bail when there is little flight risk.

Not to have imposed excessive fines imposed.

Not to have cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Not to be denied speedy and public trial before an impartial jury of the state and district previously defined by law, wherein the offense shall have been committed, and to have the location of commitment be deemed where there was concurrence of mens rea and actus reus.

Not to be twice prosecuted for the same offense or same facts under the same or different jurisdictions.

To be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense, but not to have counsel or an attorney imposed on him without his consent.

Not to be compelled to be a witness against himself.

Not to be disabled in the exercise, or deprived, of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, by unanimous verdict of a jury of twelve.

Not to be impeded in the presentation of all evidence by the defendant, without being subject to a motion in limine.

Not to be impeded in the presentation of all legal argument to the jury, up to the final instructions to the jury, except for argument on a motion in limine that cannot be made without disclosing evidence properly excluded.

Not to be impeded in the presentation of all pleadings, alternative instructions, and certified copies of applicable laws and constitutions, to the jury.

Not to have a sentence that does not separately disable the exercise of the immunity, and order deprivation of it, within the scope of that disablement.

Civil trials:
Trial by a randomly selected jury of twelve sworn to uphold applicable constitutions and laws in which the amount at issue, including costs, exceeds the equivalent of at least 15.46875 troy ounces of pure silver.

Appeals
Not to be impeded in an appeal from a jury verdict on a writ of error or habeas corpus, according to the rules of the common law in the Union as of its founding, unless the Constitution is amended to provide otherwise.

Nonauthority
Nonauthority shall be presumed for any claim to authority, to be strictly proved by an unbroken logical chain of derivation from a constitution or constitutional law.

Not to have any government actor exercise a power not delegated, regardless of whether one may be personally injured by such exercise.

Not to have government actors exercise powers on the pretext of being "necessary and proper" when they are not incidental to perform his official duties or to get a desired result beyond such duties.

To have delegated powers construed as narrowly, and rights, privileges, or immunities construed as broadly, as the language of the Constitution as meant and understood when ratified permits.

To have priority docketing of all prerogative writs filed by a any person as demandant in the name of the people with a court of competent jurisdiction and served on the respondant, within three sederunt days, unless the respondant requires more, but not more than 20 calendar days, including but not limited to, demurral, quo warranto, habeas corpus, procedendo, mandamus, prohibito, certiorari, and scire facias, and to have default judgment even if no proof is presented or a hearing is not held.

Not have communications, including speech, press, and education, punished or impeded, except such as instigate or direct a felony, misdemeanor, high crime, tort, piracy, or treason.

Not to impede peaceful assembly and exercise of rights in concert with others.

Not to impede assembly as militia for organizing, training, and response to threats to public safety, subject only to direction by state militia officers during a call-up.

Not to restrict keeping and bearing of weapons, equipment, and supplies commonly used by military forces, or suitable for militia, subject only to court order of disablement for being a threat to oneself or others, or to the lawful orders of militia officers during a call-up.

Not to impede or punish petition for redress of grievances.

Not to impede or punish devotion or practice of religion, or have preferential support of such by public funds, that does not instigate or direct a felony, misdemeanor, or tort.

Not to have government actors intrude into one's real property, body, or use of one's personal property, for search, seizure, or for any other reason, without consent, a declared state of war or emergency threat to public, safety, a warrant supported by an affidavit of probable cause, and just compensation for any losses incurred, for each incident.

Supervision of government actors
Not to impede or punish access to observation and recordation of any government proceeding except trial and inquestry deliberations or their equivalent, or deliberations on matters of security requiring secrecy.

Not to impede or punish receipt of records of all proceedings, and accounting for all receipts, loans, debts, and expenditures, and reporting thereof, for eventual examination prior to an election in which the issues may be reviewed.

Not to be denied accurate recording, counting, and reporting of all votes cast by eligible voters in any public election with protection from disclosure of how each voted.

Not to be denied access to all information about oneself, and either copies at cost of all documentation or to make one's own copies using one's own equipment.

Not to be denied effective low-cost remedies for getting information about oneself corrected, and use of such information restricted to that for which there is consent by oneself.

Not to be subject to illogical or impossible demands, or meddling without a clear, present, and compelling public need

Not to impede or punish association and contract to do things not unlawful, including practice of a profession or occupation, marriage, procreation, and acceptance or denial of medical prevention or treatment, except prevention of contagious diseases.

Not to impede or punish formation, conduct, and revision or dissolution of corporations, partnerships, and other trusts, in which settlor, trustee, and beneficiary are distinct persons who may not be impeded or penalized from directly appearing in any court in such capacities.

Not to have some accorded special privileges or protections that favor them over the rest of the people, in ways not essential to the performance of public duties.

Not to impede or punish travel by a citizen within, to, and from the Union and any State, territory or locality.

Not to be removed from the location of one's birth or lawful residence, or impeded from returning thereto.

Not to be enslaved or subjected to peonage except as punishment for a crime, but excepting militia, jury, witness, and other public duty.

Not to be impeded or punished for voting if one is a citizen and resident on grounds of race, color, creed, previous servitude, gender, age 18 or above, or failure to pay a tax.

Not to be denied custody and care of close relatives who are non sui juris.

Not to be neglected or abused while in custody.

Not to be denied any right, privilege, or immunity for failure to have or present a name or other form of identification.

Not to be deported without proof that one has not been natural born or naturalized as a citizen, unless one is born to a person not subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, such as a foreign diplomat or an invader.

Not to be subject to a penalty for not doing something, such as not paying a tax, if government agents refuse to allow it to be done, such as not accepting payment of a tax.

Not to be subject to a penalty or tax for failure to take some action one has no public duty to do.

Not to be denied relief from some government action for lack of an appropriation to process the application for relief, or having an official to receive the application, and to fail to recognize the demand for such relief as being granted by default.

Not to be required to procreate or to refrain from procreating.

Not to have imposed upon one any unwanted belief or expression of devotion or to be pressured into conformity with such.

Not be subject to oppressive surveillance, intrusive information collection, or having to present government-issued identification to exercise rights.

Immunities do not include entitlements to a sufficient amount of a scarce resource.


The foregoing list is not exhaustive, and further rights, privileges, and immunities are to be found in the historical record. The rule of expressio unius est exclusio alterius shall not be applied.


Amendment


Each twenty years following adoption of this Bill, upon petition by at least two percent of the general population of the polities that have adopted it as part of their constitutions, there shall be convened a convention, or sanhedrin, of twenty-three individuals, the final selection of which shall be by sortition of the candidates elected in the previous stage, with each previous stage selecting candidates in turn by alternating election and sortition, beginning with the lowest level polity in the system. The convention shall hold public hearings on proposed amendments, and propose them to a public referendum in which all citizens eligible to vote in the elections of their lowest polity may vote, to ratify additional items by a majority vote, modified items by a two-thirds vote, and deleted items by a four-fifths vote.

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D5A87153598EADC7C88C1141B820F100D0184D28F5D7D8123C6D154AAB3104E2

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A429A8BCBBCEDCBCE714FE900E8C29A3576FDB67700546E36069B72F731ADBC2

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***
Maximal propositions on taxation
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Income tax brackets in assumption of a possible legislation/amendment passing whose text describes a levy that shall lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, apportioned among the several States and with regard to the census/enumeration. These taxes are not to compound after their initial dues are paid, such as compounds attempted through transference from a person to another family member/spouse/friend; Only in the case of a buisness where enumeration is transfered through employment of an individual as a wage, where it does seem that compounding will be un-avoidable.

wealth value based on US dollar at $0.45 per gram of silver (2015AD silver value on earth), $0.0045 per gram of copper, $1.35 per gram of cannabis

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state and federal combined income tax maximums:

less than $20,015 yearly income @ 8.333% tax

$30,020 yearly income before tax @ 11% tax

$45,025 yearly income before tax @ 22% tax

$90,050 (?135,075?) yearly income before tax @ 27.7775% tax

$270,075 yearly income before tax @ 33% tax

$810,225 yearly income before tax @ 44% tax

$3,616,950 yearly income before tax @ 66% tax

$10,940,850 yearly income before tax @ 81% tax

$25,163,955 (or greater) yearly income before tax @ 89.333% tax

states have a priority over taxes at 2/3 or greater total taxation revenue on incomes, federal taxes are limited to 1/3 of total income tax revenues

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"flat sales tax":

federal 2.222% max tax
federal + state = 5.555% max tax

federal sales taxes may go down and states may choose not to tax, or states may adjust their taxes to the limits of the combined federal+state sales tax limits, meaning a federal sales tax of 1.111% could allow a 4.444% state sales tax

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federal bare minimum wage requirement of $9.60 an hour, recommended fair minimum wage at $12.20 an hour, $14.40 an hour wage encouraged for unions, all wages are to be based on currency volatility (the congress production of money should prevent inflation/deflation) and cost of living; pay raises of $0.73333 initially and $0.24444 afterword are also advised, though these raises may increase on account of employee and employer business arrangements

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F3AF332A6D1338D56BA671C26D5F7F82DD602F08E957E31521C6B35916295BCF

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Below are a list of compounds which are suitable for use as "extractants", within their tiers. these compounds are not to be monitored or controlled, though they are to be considered if a certain type/s of drug infraction/s have occured. Everybody votes on a tier, finishes the lines of logic to form an adequate law, and sticks with it, that will become a regulation within the states.

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Tier one (least permissive)

Water (H20); (does not need to be distilled, drinking water including mineral water should be wholly aceptable)
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Carbonic Acid
Ethyl alchohol
Alhohols of foodstuffs and their disillations
Glycerin ("esters of natural fats", such as, though not limited to, those from avacado, coconut, cannabis, emu, olive, walnut)
Acetic acid
Ascorbic acid
Natural oils, fats/fatty acids, vitamins
D-Limonene
Citrus and their juices
Vinegars of foodstuffs and their distillations
Citric acid

[]
Sodium Bi-carbonate
Sodium Carbonate
Sodium Acetate
Sodium Citrate
[]

[]
Sodium Chloride
Magnesium Chloride
Potassium Chloride
[]

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Tier two

Sodium Hydroxide
Potassium Hydroxide (NaOH)
Calcium Carbonate
Calcium Hydroxide
Fumaric Acid
Magnesium Sulfate (Includes Anyhydrous)

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Tier three

Chloroform
N-Heptane
Acetone
Ammonia
Hydrogen Peroxide

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Tier four

allows all applicable chemical and processes for extraction of any natural compound or purification of any natural compound but not synthesis, even of the natural compound, regarding personal ammounts of intoxicating substances (i.e. personal reasons). (Exmaples include but are not limited to any acid/base/solvent extraction permissable for the purpose intended by this tier)(enabled a tier of semi-limited "clanstedine chemistry")

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Tier five (most permissive)

complete legalization of clanstedine labs producing for personal use including no limitation to the chemicals appreciable, enabling all natural and synthetic intoxicating substances to be created in personal ammounts without a license. (enabled a tier of unlimited "clanstedine chemistry")

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The intoxicating substances clause may cause confusion, so here is a clarification

Extracts of drugs can mean a lot of different things, the primary purpose is to protect any of the naturally occuring compounds from being criminalized in any of the natural fashions which they may be procured, such as direct fluid extraction and gravatic separation with de-canting, to the production of hashish, the acetates of psilocybin and mescaline producing organisms, etc... The main purpose of this clarification is to cover the natural compounds, natural products, and simple reactions, purifications, or binding with the intoxicating substance as reasonably permissable within unlicensed labratories.

In extracts, I realize that the interpretations can be vauge or over encompassing. (For example, Alchohol, glycerin, or d-limonene extracts of cannabis are completely permissable.)

Personal ammounts was intended to be applicable to individuals using the drug producing organisms as a source of food, fuel, fiber, medicine, recreation, entheogenic rite or other rites of passage, or to maintain a viable reproductive population of the organism, amoung other things... A referandum of the people should serve to clarify the significance of personal ammounts whose reason of liberal interpretation is intended "personal reasons", such as cannabis as food and fuel as well as medical and recreational benefits.

This clarification on permissable extractants shall not limit the availability of chemicals available to persons. They are simply declarations of chemicals suitable for unlicensed use in the preparation of extractions for personal purposes. (I am against the DEA and the measures so far enacted by the united states, as of the time of this writing)

Recommended penalization tiers are based on de-criminalization and sentence reform, which de-felonizes most drug related offenses and instead advises a graduating policy of civil penalties, perhaps in the form of a fine ranging from $250-$650 USD(2015) which then increases (after perhaps three issued civil penalties) to penalty of misdemeanor c, with a maximum imposed penalty of misdemeanor a, with a few exceptions, perhaps buisness related, a compounding rape charge, homicide, or attempted murder by switching tryptamines with strichine, (through naturally present levels in the plant stuff shall be excluded... the law protects against attempted murder through adulteration of the substances, not whether a substance is poisounous [at whatever quantity] per se), such as muscarinagenic mushrooms, certain other things I have myself yet to have fully deduced, but drug related offences are to be de-felonized. Adopting a hard v.s. soft drug policy based on common sense, such as having the limits (if any) on cannabis be the least restrictive, colonies of mycelium which have an intoxicating affect may be propagated, the law shall never obstruct such freedomws, and of course, what am I supposed to do, do I really have to sometimes, you know, spell everything out for "them". Drug offences in and of themselves, are not felonous. Think portugal and amsterdam relaxation around the law, around 2006ad, then distill to 1880ad. Screw the UN.

People may want guidance to deal with issues of addiction, may I suggest that state sector and private healthcare facilities provide (specifically?) trained medical staff to administer and monitor the patient whom is addicted to an intoxicating substance, so that medical support may be provided as required.

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A80121C3EE9737208C1FA89FDB553BB1F2868AF65B1E616C6A5142C1C2DDFD2E
7F8DC5BBF6FCDAA67B6CC820C6C42A059D8F6834EDDA4615C68EAAB6266075C9
73067EEA84FCFF499C7616A540ED97B1420286AD323C05056BAEC815F148E8A0

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[Cesidian law]

Jus cerebri electronici

Jus cerebri electronici (Latin for "right of the server") states that the jurisdiction under which a server or client falls is not determined by the territory on which the server lies, or even the territory on which it was built, but by the hypercitizenship or citizenship of the owner of the server or client. Jus cerebri electronici states that the owner of the server or client exercises higher title and jurisdiction because Roman law (jus sanguinis/jus soli) doesn't apply at all to the Internet, but rather Cesidian law (jus cerebri electronici). Any territorial nation's claim to the Internet based on the location of a server or client is in fact illegitimate.

The rationale of jus cerebri electronici is actually based on international law. According to the Montevideo Convention Article 1, a state is such only if it has a territory. Non-territorial or virtual states are not true states under this Convention. Since non-territorial states are not true states according to international law, it follows that they are not proper jurisdictions either, the area to which the executive or legislative powers or laws of a government extend. Therefore computers, servers, and computer networks like the Internet are not legal jurisdictions on which the powers of the state, including powers of regulation and taxation, can legally apply. This idea has a parallel in the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution which is also about separation of powers, and states: "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people." In essence, this thinking is as follows: the powers not delegated to territorial states by the Montevideo Convention, nor prohibited by the Montevideo Convention to other jurisdictions, are reserved to other jurisdictions, or to the people. Since the Law of nations, and any special rights associated with the Law of nations, applies only to independent countries, which are territorial by their very nature, their jurisdiction does not extend to the Internet. But since even a country's sub-jurisdictions are also territorial in nature, their jurisdiction does not extend to the Internet either. Thus the jurisdiction of the Internet can only extend to the people.

Roman law (jus sanguinis/jus soli) in essence, which is also the basis of international law, does not apply to the Internet. If the Internet works, therefore, it is because a Higher Law is in effect, not matter (jus soli) over mind (jus cerebri electronici), but rather mind (jus cerebri electronici) over matter (jus soli). Not only does the jurisdiction of a territorial state not extend to the Internet, but over the Internet higher title is in fact exercised by the owner/programmer of the server or client, and thus the jurisdiction is that of the human mind, and whatever jurisdiction the human mind can comprehend, recognise, or understand, free from duress of any kind.

Jus cerebri electronici or the right of the server implies that servers or clients are sovereign entities in their own right by virtue of the human minds that program and control them, and territorial governments — governed by the right of the territory or jus soli — have no right to exercise power over them anymore than non-territorial states (e.g. micronations or Fifth World nations) can exercise power over land.

Jus cerebri electronici shows what has been known for a long time by Western civilisation: the province of the territorial state is territory, and territory alone. States have no jurisdiction over the human mind, or over extensions of the human mind, such as computers and networks.

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Jus cerebri humani

On 12 November 2007, thinking about jus cerebri electronici and micronational rights prompted an intellectual extension of Cesidian law through the development of the legal concept called jus cerebri humani.

Jus cerebri humani (Latin for "right of the human brain") states that if the jurisdiction under which a server or client falls is not determined by the territory on which the server lies, but by the hypercitizenship or citizenship of the owner of the server or client, this means that the owner and controller of the jus cerebri electronici sovereign jurisdiction also has effective ownership of his own thoughts, and the legal jurisdiction those thoughts can create.

This idea may seem similar to international copyright, trademark, and patent conventions, but jus cerebri humani is very different, because international intellectual property conventions only grant limited rights (rights for a limited time), or in effect intellectual privileges, while even the words jus cerebri humani alone imply a full right, and not a mere privilege. This idea is also different from international copyright, trademark, and patent conventions because it even applies to territorial nations without states.

The rationale of jus cerebri humani is actually based on international law. According to the Montevideo Convention Article 3, the political existence of the state is independent of recognition by the other states. In other words, the political existence of your unrecognised state is perfectly legitimate even prior to international recognition. Even before recognition, any unrecognised state has the right to defend its integrity and independence. Nations without states, in other words, do own the copyrights or intellectual rights associated with their nation's territorial claims! According to the Montevideo Convention Article 3 in fact, the exercise of these rights has no other limitation other than the exercise of the rights of other states.

The practical consequence of this right is that any violation of Micronational Professional Registry's Print Monopolies, Enterprise Names, Enterprise Marks, and Patents is, in effect, a kind of violation of Cesidian law, although it is not a violation of jus cerebri electronici ("right of the electronic brain"), but rather of the jus cerebri humani ("right of the human brain"). Violations of jus cerebri humani are in fact greater violations than violations of jus cerebri electronici, because with the former the violation is direct on the human being's intellectual rights, while with the latter the violation is indirect.

Another practical consequence is that through jus cerebri humani Cesidian law doesn't apply solely to virtual micronations, which are Fifth and Sixth World nations, but also to territorial macronations and micronations, which are Fourth and Fifth World nations. In other words, Cesidian law applies to both territorial and virtual nations, to macronations and micronations.
Jus humanae salutis

Just as violations of jus cerebri humani are greater than violations of jus cerebri electronici, violations of any of the health common laws that exist to preserve human life, free from duress or restrictions of any kind, are also greater than violations of jus cerebri humani. In other words, if jus humanae salutis (Latin for "right of human health (or salvation)") is invalid, then all lesser rights — such as jus cerebri humani, jus cerebri electronici, and Article 1 of the Montevideo Convention respectively — are even more invalid. However, since it is not possible for any right to be more invalid than another, the internationally accepted Article 1 of the Montevideo Convention in particular, then jus humanae salutis is a valid right, and in fact it is a superior right to jus cerebri humani, which is superior to jus cerebri electronici, which is superior to Article 1 of the Montevideo Convention.

The practical consequence of this right is that any violation of the Herbalists' Charter accepted by the Fifth World Health Organisation is, in effect, a kind of violation of Cesidian law, and in fact it is the highest known violation of Cesidian law! The Herbalists' Charter is still common law in 18 states of the eastern United States to this date, since it was never repealed in the original 13 colonies, but it is also common law in Canada, in the state of Nevada, and may be still common law throughout much of the British Commonwealth.

To a degree, the Herbalists' Charter, which protects herbalists and all natural health practitioners from arbitrary prosecution, is still in force throughout the United States through the Ninth Amendment of the US Constitution, which states that, "The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people." Under the Ninth Amendment one may claim the right to offer services and the right of others to obtain the same. However, through the Fifth World Health Organisation the Herbalists' Charter became common law throughout the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Worlds.

Moreover, the rationale of jus humanae salutis is actually based on international law, and doesn't apply solely to the United States, Canada, much of the British Commonwealth, and to the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Worlds, since it also applies to contracting states of the Montevideo Convention, and may in fact apply universally. According to the Montevideo Convention Article 11, contracting states establish as a rule the obligation not to recognise territorial acquisitions or special advantages which have been obtained by force, or by any other effective coercive measure. In other words, you shall not deprive any state of its territory. However, if the territory of each state is sacrosanct, and is usually viewed that way by any state, because the properties of individual citizens are sacrosanct (right to private property), what more personal and intimate property does any citizen have than his own body?

The violation of jus humanae salutis, the violation of any of the health common laws that exist to preserve human life, are no less violations than a violation of the Article 11 of the Montevideo Convention. In addition, the Latin words behind jus humanae salutis not only imply a right to human health, but also a right to human salvation, which is more a matter of the human soul than one of the human body.

So another practical consequence is that through jus humanae salutis Cesidian law doesn't apply solely to human health, but also to spiritual or religious matters.

Cesidian law through the three legal concepts of jus cerebri electronici, jus cerebri humani, and jus humanae salutis, effectively covers both territorial and virtual nations, macronations and micronations, intellectual property rights and regular property rights, the right to a healthy life, and even the right to spiritual salvation.

Cesidian law deals with the entire human paradigm, and thus it may be viewed as the world's first form of holistic law. It deals with the right to property — intellectual and territorial property; the right to inherit property — genetic and territorial property; the right to emigration and naturalisation; the right to self-determination, autonomy, and independence; as well as the right to physical and spiritual health, i.e. freedom to heal oneself through natural and holistic health means, and to heal one's soul through religious study and practice.
Essential Cesidian law

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Fundamental Rights

Thomas Jefferson claimed that there were three basic rights: Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness. What he probably wanted to say, before someone made sure that the 13 Colonies had the "right" to expropriate someone's property (a violation of Mosaic and Cesidian law), was that there were three basic rights, and these were Life, Liberty, and Property.

Actually Jefferson was in part right! He had concluded that civilised life depended greatly on the most fundamental right of a Family (Life), and a Nation (Liberty or Sovereignty), but totally ignored the most fundamental right of an Individual (Privacy).

Fundamental Elements are complex elements, since these elements are actually based on a combination of one or more Bathetic Elements. Fundamental Elements are necessary to ensure the trinity based on the most fundamental right of the Individual, the Family, and of the nation or State.

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Law and the Human Brain

Roman law (jus sanguinis/jus soli) is as primitive and as necessary as the cerebellum is to the brain. The cerebellum is involved in the control of movement, thus an area immediately involved with the right of the territory.

American law (jus via naturalisation) expanded Roman law a little, just as the functions of the Wernicke's area of the brain expanded the capacity of the brain. The Wernicke's area is involved with language comprehension and speech, thus an area related with the right of naturalization.

Cesidian law (jus cerebri electronici) represents the final stage of evolution of the brain, just as the orbitofrontal cortex represents the ultimate brain part. The orbitofrontal cortex is involved in cognitive processes such as decision making, thus an area related with the right of the server — guess who makes decisions for servers, and can even shape the Internet environment itself?

Roman law is still alive today even in America in its jus soli and jus sanguinis aspects. Jus soli is Latin for "right of the territory". This means that citizenship is determined even in America by the place of your birth. Actually, in America this aspect of Roman law is even stronger than it is in Europe, where jus sanguinis tends to dominate.

Jus sanguinis, another aspect of Roman law, is Latin for "Right of Blood". This means that citizenship is determined even in America by a parent's citizenship. As the Wikipedia states, "Many nations have a mixture of jus sanguinis and jus soli, including the United States, Canada, Israel, Germany (as of recently), Greece, Britain, Ireland, and others." (Jus sanguinis)

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"in a modern civilized society, the death penalty is almost profoundly entirely unnessicary {a semi-quote with abriding alteration}, spare for trial of members of the public body or another entity [?within the nation?, do i really have to say that?] for treason, or 'standing ones ground, within self defence' of an individual and such an argumanet may only be exemplified greater by the revolutions of the people against tyranny"

talk about the cost of appeals on death row and the reduction in expendatures for simply detaining murderers for life in publicly owned penal institutions, cite sources

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Beyond Security Theater

[i was asked to write this essay for the New Internationalist (n. 427, November 2009, pp. 10–13). It's nothing I haven't said before, but I'm pleased with how this essay came together.]

Terrorism is rare, far rarer than many people think. It's rare because very few people want to commit acts of terrorism, and executing a terrorist plot is much harder than television makes it appear. The best defenses against terrorism are largely invisible: investigation, intelligence, and emergency response. But even these are less effective at keeping us safe than our social and political policies, both at home and abroad. However, our elected leaders don't think this way: they are far more likely to implement security theater against movie-plot threats.

A movie-plot threat is an overly specific attack scenario. Whether it's terrorists with crop dusters, terrorists contaminating the milk supply, or terrorists attacking the Olympics, specific stories affect our emotions more intensely than mere data does. Stories are what we fear. It's not just hypothetical stories: terrorists flying planes into buildings, terrorists with bombs in their shoes or in their water bottles, and terrorists with guns and bombs waging a co-ordinated attack against a city are even scarier movie-plot threats because they actually happened.

Security theater refers to security measures that make people feel more secure without doing anything to actually improve their security. An example: the photo ID checks that have sprung up in office buildings. No-one has ever explained why verifying that someone has a photo ID provides any actual security, but it looks like security to have a uniformed guard-for-hire looking at ID cards. Airport-security examples include the National Guard troops stationed at US airports in the months after 9/11 -- their guns had no bullets. The US colour-coded system of threat levels, the pervasive harassment of photographers, and the metal detectors that are increasingly common in hotels and office buildings since the Mumbai terrorist attacks, are additional examples.

To be sure, reasonable arguments can be made that some terrorist targets are more attractive than others: aeroplanes because a small bomb can result in the death of everyone aboard, monuments because of their national significance, national events because of television coverage, and transportation because of the numbers of people who commute daily. But there are literally millions of potential targets in any large country (there are five million commercial buildings alone in the US), and hundreds of potential terrorist tactics; it's impossible to defend every place against everything, and it's impossible to predict which tactic and target terrorists will try next.

Feeling and Reality

Security is both a feeling and a reality. The propensity for security theater comes from the interplay between the public and its leaders. When people are scared, they need something done that will make them feel safe, even if it doesn't truly make them safer. Politicians naturally want to do something in response to crisis, even if that something doesn't make any sense.

Often, this "something" is directly related to the details of a recent event: we confiscate liquids, screen shoes, and ban box cutters on airplanes. But it's not the target and tactics of the last attack that are important, but the next attack. These measures are only effective if we happen to guess what the next terrorists are planning. If we spend billions defending our rail systems, and the terrorists bomb a shopping mall instead, we've wasted our money. If we concentrate airport security on screening shoes and confiscating liquids, and the terrorists hide explosives in their brassieres and use solids, we've wasted our money. Terrorists don't care what they blow up and it shouldn't be our goal merely to force the terrorists to make a minor change in their tactics or targets.

Our penchant for movie plots blinds us to the broader threats. And security theater consumes resources that could better be spent elsewhere.

Any terrorist attack is a series of events: something like planning, recruiting, funding, practising, executing, aftermath. Our most effective defenses are at the beginning and end of that process -- intelligence, investigation, and emergency response -- and least effective when they require us to guess the plot correctly. By intelligence and investigation, I don't mean the broad data-mining or eavesdropping systems that have been proposed and in some cases implemented -- those are also movie-plot stories without much basis in actual effectiveness -- but instead the traditional "follow the evidence" type of investigation that has worked for decades.

Unfortunately for politicians, the security measures that work are largely invisible. Such measures include enhancing the intelligence-gathering abilities of the secret services, hiring cultural experts and Arabic translators, building bridges with Islamic communities both nationally and internationally, funding police capabilities -- both investigative arms to prevent terrorist attacks, and emergency communications systems for after attacks occur -- and arresting terrorist plotters without media fanfare. They do not include expansive new police or spying laws. Our police don't need any new laws to deal with terrorism; rather, they need apolitical funding. These security measures don't make good television, and they don't help, come re-election time. But they work, addressing the reality of security instead of the feeling.

The arrest of the "liquid bombers" in London is an example: they were caught through old-fashioned intelligence and police work. Their choice of target (airplanes) and tactic (liquid explosives) didn't matter; they would have been arrested regardless.

But even as we do all of this we cannot neglect the feeling of security, because it's how we collectively overcome the psychological damage that terrorism causes. It's not security theater we need, it's direct appeals to our feelings. The best way to help people feel secure is by acting secure around them. Instead of reacting to terrorism with fear, we -- and our leaders -- need to react with indomitability.

Refuse to Be Terrorized

By not overreacting, by not responding to movie-plot threats, and by not becoming defensive, we demonstrate the resilience of our society, in our laws, our culture, our freedoms. There is a difference between indomitability and arrogant "bring 'em on" rhetoric. There's a difference between accepting the inherent risk that comes with a free and open society, and hyping the threats.

We should treat terrorists like common criminals and give them all the benefits of true and open justice -- not merely because it demonstrates our indomitability, but because it makes us all safer. Once a society starts circumventing its own laws, the risks to its future stability are much greater than terrorism.

Supporting real security even though it's invisible, and demonstrating indomitability even though fear is more politically expedient, requires real courage. Demagoguery is easy. What we need is leaders willing both to do what's right and to speak the truth.

Despite fearful rhetoric to the contrary, terrorism is not a transcendent threat. A terrorist attack cannot possibly destroy a country's way of life; it's only our reaction to that attack that can do that kind of damage. The more we undermine our own laws, the more we convert our buildings into fortresses, the more we reduce the freedoms and liberties at the foundation of our societies, the more we're doing the terrorists' job for them.

We saw some of this in the Londoners' reaction to the 2005 transport bombings. Among the political and media hype and fearmongering, there was a thread of firm resolve. People didn't fall victim to fear. They rode the trains and buses the next day and continued their lives. Terrorism's goal isn't murder; terrorism attacks the mind, using victims as a prop. By refusing to be terrorized, we deny the terrorists their primary weapon: our own fear.

Today, we can project indomitability by rolling back all the fear-based post-9/11 security measures. Our leaders have lost credibility; getting it back requires a decrease in hyperbole. Ditch the invasive mass surveillance systems and new police state-like powers. Return airport security to pre-9/11 levels. Remove swagger from our foreign policies. Show the world that our legal system is up to the challenge of terrorism. Stop telling people to report all suspicious activity; it does little but make us suspicious of each other, increasing both fear and helplessness.

Terrorism has always been rare, and for all we've heard about 9/11 changing the world, it's still rare. Even 9/11 failed to kill as many people as automobiles do in the US every single month. But there's a pervasive myth that terrorism is easy. It's easy to imagine terrorist plots, both large-scale "poison the food supply" and small-scale "10 guys with guns and cars." Movies and television bolster this myth, so many people are surprised that there have been so few attacks in Western cities since 9/11. Certainly intelligence and investigation successes have made it harder, but mostly it's because terrorist attacks are actually hard. It's hard to find willing recruits, to co-ordinate plans, and to execute those plans -- and it's easy to make mistakes.

Counterterrorism is also hard, especially when we're psychologically prone to muck it up. Since 9/11, we've embarked on strategies of defending specific targets against specific tactics, overreacting to every terrorist video, stoking fear, demonizing ethnic groups, and treating the terrorists as if they were legitimate military opponents who could actually destroy a country or a way of life -- all of this plays into the hands of terrorists. We'd do much better by leveraging the inherent strengths of our modern democracies and the natural advantages we have over the terrorists: our adaptability and survivability, our international network of laws and law enforcement, and the freedoms and liberties that make our society so enviable. The way we live is open enough to make terrorists rare; we are observant enough to prevent most of the terrorist plots that exist, and indomitable enough to survive the even fewer terrorist plots that actually succeed. We don't need to pretend otherwise.

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0:11
So security is two different things: it's a feeling, and it's a reality. And they're different. You could feel secure even if you're not. And you can be secure even if you don't feel it. Really, we have two separate concepts mapped onto the same word. And what I want to do in this talk is to split them apart -- figuring out when they diverge and how they converge. And language is actually a problem here. There aren't a lot of good words for the concepts we're going to talk about.

0:44
So if you look at security from economic terms, it's a trade-off. Every time you get some security, you're always trading off something. Whether this is a personal decision -- whether you're going to install a burglar alarm in your home -- or a national decision -- where you're going to invade some foreign country -- you're going to trade off something, either money or time, convenience, capabilities, maybe fundamental liberties. And the question to ask when you look at a security anything is not whether this makes us safer, but whether it's worth the trade-off. You've heard in the past several years, the world is safer because Saddam Hussein is not in power. That might be true, but it's not terribly relevant. The question is, was it worth it? And you can make your own decision, and then you'll decide whether the invasion was worth it. That's how you think about security -- in terms of the trade-off.

1:37
Now there's often no right or wrong here. Some of us have a burglar alarm system at home, and some of us don't. And it'll depend on where we live, whether we live alone or have a family, how much cool stuff we have, how much we're willing to accept the risk of theft. In politics also, there are different opinions. A lot of times, these trade-offs are about more than just security, and I think that's really important. Now people have a natural intuition about these trade-offs. We make them every day -- last night in my hotel room, when I decided to double-lock the door, or you in your car when you drove here, when we go eat lunch and decide the food's not poison and we'll eat it. We make these trade-offs again and again, multiple times a day. We often won't even notice them. They're just part of being alive; we all do it.

2:29
Every species does it. Imagine a rabbit in a field, eating grass, and the rabbit's going to see a fox. That rabbit will make a security trade-off: "Should I stay, or should I flee?" And if you think about it, the rabbits that are good at making that trade-off will tend to live and reproduce, and the rabbits that are bad at it will get eaten or starve. So you'd think that us, as a successful species on the planet -- you, me, everybody -- would be really good at making these trade-offs. Yet it seems, again and again, that we're hopelessly bad at it. And I think that's a fundamentally interesting question.

3:10
I'll give you the short answer. The answer is, we respond to the feeling of security and not the reality. Now most of the time, that works. Most of the time, feeling and reality are the same. Certainly that's true for most of human prehistory. We've developed this ability because it makes evolutionary sense. One way to think of it is that we're highly optimized for risk decisions that are endemic to living in small family groups in the East African highlands in 100,000 B.C. 2010 New York, not so much.

3:52
Now there are several biases in risk perception. A lot of good experiments in this. And you can see certain biases that come up again and again. So I'll give you four. We tend to exaggerate spectacular and rare risks and downplay common risks -- so flying versus driving. The unknown is perceived to be riskier than the familiar. One example would be, people fear kidnapping by strangers when the data supports kidnapping by relatives is much more common. This is for children. Third, personified risks are perceived to be greater than anonymous risks -- so Bin Laden is scarier because he has a name. And the fourth is people underestimate risks in situations they do control and overestimate them in situations they don't control. So once you take up skydiving or smoking, you downplay the risks. If a risk is thrust upon you -- terrorism was a good example -- you'll overplay it because you don't feel like it's in your control.

4:58
There are a bunch of other of these biases, these cognitive biases, that affect our risk decisions. There's the availability heuristic, which basically means we estimate the probability of something by how easy it is to bring instances of it to mind. So you can imagine how that works. If you hear a lot about tiger attacks, there must be a lot of tigers around. You don't hear about lion attacks, there aren't a lot of lions around. This works until you invent newspapers. Because what newspapers do is they repeat again and again rare risks. I tell people, if it's in the news, don't worry about it. Because by definition, news is something that almost never happens. (Laughter) When something is so common, it's no longer news -- car crashes, domestic violence -- those are the risks you worry about.

5:49
We're also a species of storytellers. We respond to stories more than data. And there's some basic innumeracy going on. I mean, the joke "One, Two, Three, Many" is kind of right. We're really good at small numbers. One mango, two mangoes, three mangoes, 10,000 mangoes, 100,000 mangoes -- it's still more mangoes you can eat before they rot. So one half, one quarter, one fifth -- we're good at that. One in a million, one in a billion -- they're both almost never. So we have trouble with the risks that aren't very common.

6:21
And what these cognitive biases do is they act as filters between us and reality. And the result is that feeling and reality get out of whack, they get different. Now you either have a feeling -- you feel more secure than you are. There's a false sense of security. Or the other way, and that's a false sense of insecurity. I write a lot about "security theater," which are products that make people feel secure, but don't actually do anything. There's no real word for stuff that makes us secure, but doesn't make us feel secure. Maybe it's what the CIA's supposed to do for us.

6:59
So back to economics. If economics, if the market, drives security, and if people make trade-offs based on the feeling of security, then the smart thing for companies to do for the economic incentives are to make people feel secure. And there are two ways to do this. One, you can make people actually secure and hope they notice. Or two, you can make people just feel secure and hope they don't notice. So what makes people notice? Well a couple of things: understanding of the security, of the risks, the threats, the countermeasures, how they work. But if you know stuff, you're more likely to have your feelings match reality. Enough real world examples helps.

7:51
Now we all know the crime rate in our neighborhood, because we live there, and we get a feeling about it that basically matches reality. Security theater's exposed when it's obvious that it's not working properly. Okay, so what makes people not notice? Well, a poor understanding. If you don't understand the risks, you don't understand the costs, you're likely to get the trade-off wrong, and your feeling doesn't match reality. Not enough examples. There's an inherent problem with low probability events. If, for example, terrorism almost never happens, it's really hard to judge the efficacy of counter-terrorist measures. This is why you keep sacrificing virgins, and why your unicorn defenses are working just great. There aren't enough examples of failures. Also, feelings that are clouding the issues -- the cognitive biases I talked about earlier, fears, folk beliefs, basically an inadequate model of reality.

8:58
So let me complicate things. I have feeling and reality. I want to add a third element. I want to add model. Feeling and model in our head, reality is the outside world. It doesn't change; it's real. So feeling is based on our intuition. Model is based on reason. That's basically the difference. In a primitive and simple world, there's really no reason for a model because feeling is close to reality. You don't need a model. But in a modern and complex world, you need models to understand a lot of the risks we face. There's no feeling about germs. You need a model to understand them. So this model is an intelligent representation of reality. It's, of course, limited by science, by technology. We couldn't have a germ theory of disease before we invented the microscope to see them. It's limited by our cognitive biases. But it has the ability to override our feelings.

10:07
Where do we get these models? We get them from others. We get them from religion, from culture, teachers, elders. A couple years ago, I was in South Africa on safari. The tracker I was with grew up in Kruger National Park. He had some very complex models of how to survive. And it depended on if you were attacked by a lion or a leopard or a rhino or an elephant -- and when you had to run away, and when you couldn't run away, and when you had to climb a tree -- when you could never climb a tree. I would have died in a day, but he was born there, and he understood how to survive. I was born in New York City. I could have taken him to New York, and he would have died in a day. (Laughter) Because we had different models based on our different experiences.

10:54
Models can come from the media, from our elected officials. Think of models of terrorism, child kidnapping, airline safety, car safety. Models can come from industry. The two I'm following are surveillance cameras, ID cards, quite a lot of our computer security models come from there. A lot of models come from science. Health models are a great example. Think of cancer, of bird flu, swine flu, SARS. All of our feelings of security about those diseases come from models given to us, really, by science filtered through the media. So models can change. Models are not static. As we become more comfortable in our environments, our model can move closer to our feelings.

11:49
So an example might be, if you go back 100 years ago when electricity was first becoming common, there were a lot of fears about it. I mean, there were people who were afraid to push doorbells, because there was electricity in there, and that was dangerous. For us, we're very facile around electricity. We change light bulbs without even thinking about it. Our model of security around electricity is something we were born into. It hasn't changed as we were growing up. And we're good at it. Or think of the risks on the Internet across generations -- how your parents approach Internet security, versus how you do, versus how our kids will. Models eventually fade into the background. Intuitive is just another word for familiar.

12:41
So as your model is close to reality, and it converges with feelings, you often don't know it's there. So a nice example of this came from last year and swine flu. When swine flu first appeared, the initial news caused a lot of overreaction. Now it had a name, which made it scarier than the regular flu, even though it was more deadly. And people thought doctors should be able to deal with it. So there was that feeling of lack of control. And those two things made the risk more than it was. As the novelty wore off, the months went by, there was some amount of tolerance, people got used to it. There was no new data, but there was less fear. By autumn, people thought the doctors should have solved this already. And there's kind of a bifurcation -- people had to choose between fear and acceptance -- actually fear and indifference -- they kind of chose suspicion. And when the vaccine appeared last winter, there were a lot of people -- a surprising number -- who refused to get it -- as a nice example of how people's feelings of security change, how their model changes, sort of wildly with no new information, with no new input. This kind of thing happens a lot.

14:08
I'm going to give one more complication. We have feeling, model, reality. I have a very relativistic view of security. I think it depends on the observer. And most security decisions have a variety of people involved. And stakeholders with specific trade-offs will try to influence the decision. And I call that their agenda. And you see agenda -- this is marketing, this is politics -- trying to convince you to have one model versus another, trying to convince you to ignore a model and trust your feelings, marginalizing people with models you don't like. This is not uncommon. An example, a great example, is the risk of smoking. In the history of the past 50 years, the smoking risk shows how a model changes, and it also shows how an industry fights against a model it doesn't like. Compare that to the secondhand smoke debate -- probably about 20 years behind. Think about seat belts. When I was a kid, no one wore a seat belt. Nowadays, no kid will let you drive if you're not wearing a seat belt. Compare that to the airbag debate -- probably about 30 years behind.

15:27
All examples of models changing. What we learn is that changing models is hard. Models are hard to dislodge. If they equal your feelings, you don't even know you have a model. And there's another cognitive bias I'll call confirmation bias, where we tend to accept data that confirms our beliefs and reject data that contradicts our beliefs. So evidence against our model, we're likely to ignore, even if it's compelling. It has to get very compelling before we'll pay attention. New models that extend long periods of time are hard. Global warming is a great example. We're terrible at models that span 80 years. We can do to the next harvest. We can often do until our kids grow up. But 80 years, we're just not good at. So it's a very hard model to accept. We can have both models in our head simultaneously, right, that kind of problem where we're holding both beliefs together, right, the cognitive dissonance. Eventually, the new model will replace the old model.

16:40
Strong feelings can create a model. September 11th created a security model in a lot of people's heads. Also, personal experiences with crime can do it, personal health scare, a health scare in the news. You'll see these called flashbulb events by psychiatrists. They can create a model instantaneously, because they're very emotive.

17:05
So in the technological world, we don't have experience to judge models. And we rely on others. We rely on proxies. I mean, this works as long as it's to correct others. We rely on government agencies to tell us what pharmaceuticals are safe. I flew here yesterday. I didn't check the airplane. I relied on some other group to determine whether my plane was safe to fly. We're here, none of us fear the roof is going to collapse on us, not because we checked, but because we're pretty sure the building codes here are good. It's a model we just accept pretty much by faith. And that's okay.

17:53
Now, what we want is people to get familiar enough with better models -- have it reflected in their feelings -- to allow them to make security trade-offs. Now when these go out of whack, you have two options. One, you can fix people's feelings, directly appeal to feelings. It's manipulation, but it can work. The second, more honest way is to actually fix the model. Change happens slowly. The smoking debate took 40 years, and that was an easy one. Some of this stuff is hard. I mean really though, information seems like our best hope.

18:36
And I lied. Remember I said feeling, model, reality; I said reality doesn't change. It actually does. We live in a technological world; reality changes all the time. So we might have -- for the first time in our species -- feeling chases model, model chases reality, reality's moving -- they might never catch up. We don't know. But in the long-term, both feeling and reality are important. And I want to close with two quick stories to illustrate this.

19:08
1982 -- I don't know if people will remember this -- there was a short epidemic of Tylenol poisonings in the United States. It's a horrific story. Someone took a bottle of Tylenol, put poison in it, closed it up, put it back on the shelf. Someone else bought it and died. This terrified people. There were a couple of copycat attacks. There wasn't any real risk, but people were scared. And this is how the tamper-proof drug industry was invented. Those tamper-proof caps, that came from this. It's complete security theater. As a homework assignment, think of 10 ways to get around it. I'll give you one, a syringe. But it made people feel better. It made their feeling of security more match the reality.

19:50
Last story, a few years ago, a friend of mine gave birth. I visit her in the hospital. It turns out when a baby's born now, they put an RFID bracelet on the baby, put a corresponding one on the mother, so if anyone other than the mother takes the baby out of the maternity ward, an alarm goes off. I said, "Well, that's kind of neat. I wonder how rampant baby snatching is out of hospitals." I go home, I look it up. It basically never happens. But if you think about it, if you are a hospital, and you need to take a baby away from its mother, out of the room to run some tests, you better have some good security theater, or she's going to rip your arm off.

20:29
So it's important for us, those of us who design security, who look at security policy, or even look at public policy in ways that affect security. It's not just reality; it's feeling and reality. What's important is that they be about the same. It's important that, if our feelings match reality, we make better security trade-offs.


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schools will have guns locked in a safe to accompany each teachr in their classroom, the principle will have a [need to define school protection gun access law], teachrs may open carry

[school gun safes, gun safes in schools]

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79397C14D6D3B4BBE8E9BA7CCFCACFCEB167947F174AD5B1987D02FFC16CA0C3
E81AA1AAE4CBBD8279F2C49A3A47A6C200768345C15419A047F799CC40358642


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Look to collonial script historicity and abraham lincoln greenback historicity including mechanism established by congress considering the currency deployment. "The Secret of OZ by Mr. Bill Still" can shed some light on what I am alluding to. Fiat currencies work, but it must be fully reserved in the commodity which backs them.

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Regarding these works, a cesedian territory within cyberspace may be established by the people [of the world], not their governments, which holds all in respect of the constitution of articles of confederation, united states of america, its bill of rights, the emancipation of all slaves as in lincoln, as well as the draft documents of terranullius_[{a04.03.30}ensure correct version]. This cyberspace will be the meeting place for any person of the world who is upholds their oath to the constitution of the united states and it's bill of rights as well as the writ of habeus corpus, to represent the cessedian territory of these people who seek to create the nation of greenway once territory has been secured for its implementation.

The Provisional Government shall observe the rules of natural justice.

The nation of greenway shall not be established until the representatives have been elected through the will of the natural people and the common law norms adhered to by thomas jefferson, george washington, james madison, and benjamin franklin, as acribed in the united states constitution of 1776 and the united states bill of rights of the 1789 Joint Resolution of Congress, and of which mandates that the government not be enacted on its own authority, but only that of the people, through their due process.

After a convention of the people has conviened, perhaps in cyberspace as a public meeting, the people will then petitition a convention of representitives of the people whom were elected by the people, through the people will of the people, whom the representatives shall take an oath to uphold the constitution of the historical united states of 1776 and the bill of rights which was enacted in the united states 1789 Joint Resolution of Congress, as well as uphold the emancipation proclamation, this document may after review of its draft status by enacted, though the articles of confederacy and the bill of rights and the emancipation proclamation which are simulatatiously upheld for the holding of two years while the states are established and the constitution of greenway are ratified.

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NOTES:
[After the nation has been enacted, it is possible to port federal and state laws which remain in the spirit of the constitution of the united states of america and the constitution and greenway/terranullius/irislund, once they have been ratified by a vote of the people, not their governments, for the first preliminary minimal sets of codes and laws to be established. This nations laws are considered to be translateable with the united states legal system, which means that a BAR exam would probably suffice for passing requirements to be a lawyer, and a possible the test of intelligence for office would consist of the WAIS IQ and GED as appreciable.]

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5F0A0675FCB2A0FF3EBB198F2B3AA92374A09AC578091A27BCCFB942FFBF89CA
17E0D46A96C497A9F8C0937BBCFA9E81DE9D741389CC8313028C8D45CE898547
F170FA749ADBB066E7F1EC42C5949356A1E2A8659A46497873D9EAF09E715D68

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Political Science & Micronation Experiment:
The United States of Greenwegia

Purposes:
venus project for early 21st century Libertarian Space Age, escape the matrix, free the people now

Location:
Cyberspace as well as Southern Atlantic Oceanic Platform/s and Artificial Island/s

Time period:
{insert correct dte/s}; Early 21st century, Brave New Revolutionary World

National flag:
"T.T.Brown Anti-Gravity Electro-Symmetric" "Upside-down" Equilateral Triangle of Knotting Hoops within an iscosohedron which is in the center of the flag and fully eclipses a blue giant in the backround, with 36 solar rays to the edges of the flag. It can be enhanced with around ~9-27 stars, where the points made are real and number of stars don't matter.

Slogan of nation:
"Unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno, y, Un pour tous, tous pour un" - Musketeer Alexandre Dumas

National anthem:
"Cunts are still running the world, Bring on the Lucie (Freeda Peeple), Uncle sam goddamn"

Political cartoon:
"Join, or Die" by Benjamin Franklin

An animal:
Khamailéōn

Political hypo-type (model):
Hippie-Green Anti-Authoritarian Anti-Sadomaschichistic Anti-Necromancy Anarcho-Capitolistic (Eco)-Socialist Technocratic-Libertarian Constitutional Republic

Silly word:
"Nort"

Anti-Thesis:
"In The (tyrants) Court Of The Crimson King ~ King Crimson"

Recommended reading:
Anarchist's cookbook
Ad-busters
The Ten Commandments of Propaganda

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Extract from Thomas Jefferson to William Stephens Smith
Paris Nov. 13. 1787.

the people can not be all, & always, well informed. the part which is wrong [. . .] will be discontented in proportion to the importance of the facts they misconceive. if they remain quiet under such misconceptions it is a lethargy, the forerunner of death to the public liberty. we have had 13. states independant 11. years. there has been one rebellion. that comes to one rebellion in a century & a half for each state. what country before ever existed a century & half without a rebellion? & what country can preserve it’s liberties if their rulers are not warned from time to time that their people preserve the spirit of resistance? let them take arms. the remedy is to set them right as to facts, pardon & pacify them. what signify a few lives lost in a century or two? the tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots & tyrants. it is it’s natural manure.


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[articles of confederation]

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To all to whom these Presents shall come, we, the undersigned Delegates of the States affixed to our Names send greeting. Whereas the Delegates of the United States of America in Congress assembled did on the fifteenth day of November in the year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy seven, and in the Second Year of the Independence of America agree to certain articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the States of Newhampshire, Massachusetts-bay, Rhodeisland and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia in the Words following, viz. “Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the States of Newhampshire, Massachusetts-bay, Rhodeisland and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.

Article I. The Stile of this confederacy shall be, “The United States of America.”

Article II. Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom and independence, and every Power, Jurisdiction and right, which is not by this confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled.

Article III. The said states hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defence, the security of their Liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretence whatever.

Article IV. The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship and intercourse among the people of the different states in this union, the free inhabitants of each of these states, paupers, vagabonds and fugitives from Justice excepted, shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of free citizens in the several states; and the people of each state shall have free ingress and regress to and from any other state, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same duties, impositions and restrictions as the inhabitants thereof respectively, provided that such restrictions shall not extend so far as to prevent the removal of property imported into any state, to any other State of which the Owner is an inhabitant; provided also that no imposition, duties or restriction shall be laid by any state, on the property of the united states, or either of them.

If any Person guilty of, or charged with, treason, felony, or other high misdemeanor in any state, shall flee from Justice, and be found in any of the united states, he shall upon demand of the Governor or executive power of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, and removed to the state having jurisdiction of his offence.

Full faith and credit shall be given in each of these states to the records, acts and judicial proceedings of the courts and magistrates of every other state.

Article V. For the more convenient management of the general interests of the united states, delegates shall be annually appointed in such manner as the legislature of each state shall direct, to meet in Congress on the first Monday in November, in every year, with a power reserved to each state to recall its delegates, or any of them, at any time within the year, and to send others in their stead, for the remainder of the Year.

No State shall be represented in Congress by less than two, nor by more than seven Members; and no person shall be capable of being delegate for more than three years, in any term of six years; nor shall any person, being a delegate, be capable of holding any office under the united states, for which he, or another for his benefit receives any salary, fees or emolument of any kind.

Each State shall maintain its own delegates in a meeting of the states, and while they act as members of the committee of the states.

In determining questions in the united states, in Congress assembled, each state shall have one vote.

Freedom of speech and debate in Congress shall not be impeached or questioned in any Court, or place out of Congress, and the members of congress shall be protected in their persons from arrests and imprisonments, during the time of their going to and from, and attendance on congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace.

Article VI. No State, without the Consent of the united States, in congress assembled, shall send any embassy to, or receive any embassy from, or enter into any conferrence, agreement, alliance, or treaty, with any King prince or state; nor shall any person holding any office of profit or trust under the united states, or any of them, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state; nor shall the united states, in congress assembled, or any of them, grant any title of nobility.

No two or more states shall enter into any treaty, confederation, or alliance whatever between them, without the consent of the united states, in congress assembled, specifying accurately the purposes for which the same is to be entered into, and how long it shall continue.

No State shall lay any imposts or duties, which may interfere with any stipulations in treaties, entered into by the united States in congress assembled, with any king, prince, or State, in pursuance of any treaties already proposed by congress, to the courts of France and Spain.

No vessels of war shall be kept up in time of peace, by any state, except such number only, as shall be deemed necessary by the united states, in congress assembled, for the defence of such state, or its trade; nor shall any body of forces be kept up, by any state, in time of peace, except such number only as, in the judgment of the united states, in congress assembled, shall be deemed requisite to garrison the forts necessary for the defence of such state; but every state shall always keep up a well regulated and disciplined militia, sufficiently armed and accounted, and shall provide and constantly have ready for use, in public stores, a due number of field pieces and tents, and a proper quantity of arms, ammunition, and camp equipage.

No State shall engage in any war without the consent of the united States in congress assembled, unless such State be actually invaded by enemies, or shall have received certain advice of a resolution being formed by some nation of Indians to invade such State, and the danger is so imminent as not to admit of a delay till the united states in congress assembled, can be consulted: nor shall any state grant commissions to any ships or vessels of war, nor letters of marque or reprisal, except it be after a declaration of war by the united states in congress assembled, and then only against the kingdom or State, and the subjects thereof, against which war has been so declared, and under such regulations as shall be established by the united states in congress assembled, unless such state be infested by pirates, in which case vessels of war may be fitted out for that occasion, and kept so long as the danger shall continue, or until the united states in congress assembled shall determine otherwise.

Article VII. When land forces are raised by any state, for the common defence, all officers of or under the rank of colonel, shall be appointed by the legislature of each state respectively by whom such forces shall be raised, or in such manner as such state shall direct, and all vacancies shall be filled up by the state which first made appointment.

Article VIII. All charges of war, and all other expenses that shall be incurred for the common defence or general welfare, and allowed by the united states in congress assembled, shall be defrayed out of a common treasury, which shall be supplied by the several states, in proportion to the value of all land within each state, granted to or surveyed for any Person, as such land and the buildings and improvements thereon shall be estimated, according to such mode as the united states, in congress assembled, shall, from time to time, direct and appoint. The taxes for paying that proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the several states within the time agreed upon by the united states in congress assembled.

Article IX. The united states, in congress assembled, shall have the sole and exclusive right and power of determining on peace and war, except in the cases mentioned in the sixth article - of sending and receiving ambassadors - entering into treaties and alliances, provided that no treaty of commerce shall be made, whereby the legislative power of the respective states shall be restrained from imposing such imposts and duties on foreigners, as their own people are subjected to, or from prohibiting the exportation or importation of any species of goods or commodities whatsoever - of establishing rules for deciding, in all cases, what captures on land or water shall be legal, and in what manner prizes taken by land or naval forces in the service of the united Sates, shall be divided or appropriated - of granting letters of marque and reprisal in times of peace - appointing courts for the trial of piracies and felonies committed on the high seas; and establishing courts; for receiving and determining finally appeals in all cases of captures; provided that no member of congress shall be appointed a judge of any of the said courts.

The united states, in congress assembled, shall also be the last resort on appeal, in all disputes and differences now subsisting, or that hereafter may arise between two or more states concerning boundary, jurisdiction, or any other cause whatever; which authority shall always be exercised in the manner following. Whenever the legislative or executive authority, or lawful agent of any state in controversy with another, shall present a petition to congress, stating the matter in question, and praying for a hearing, notice thereof shall be given, by order of congress, to the legislative or executive authority of the other state in controversy, and a day assigned for the appearance of the parties by their lawful agents, who shall then be directed to appoint, by joint consent, commissioners or judges to constitute a court for hearing and determining the matter in question: but if they cannot agree, congress shall name three persons out of each of the united states, and from the list of such persons each party shall alternately strike out one, the petitioners beginning, until the number shall be reduced to thirteen; and from that number not less than seven, nor more than nine names, as congress shall direct, shall, in the presence of congress, be drawn out by lot, and the persons whose names shall be so drawn, or any five of them, shall be commissioners or judges, to hear and finally determine the controversy, so always as a major part of the judges, who shall hear the cause, shall agree in the determination: and if either party shall neglect to attend at the day appointed, without showing reasons which congress shall judge sufficient, or being present, shall refuse to strike, the congress shall proceed to nominate three persons out of each State, and the secretary of congress shall strike in behalf of such party absent or refusing; and the judgment and sentence of the court, to be appointed in the manner before prescribed, shall be final and conclusive; and if any of the parties shall refuse to submit to the authority of such court, or to appear or defend their claim or cause, the court shall nevertheless proceed to pronounce sentence, or judgment, which shall in like manner be final and decisive; the judgment or sentence and other proceedings being in either case transmitted to congress, and lodged among the acts of congress, for the security of the parties concerned: provided that every commissioner, before he sits in judgment, shall take an oath to be administered by one of the judges of the supreme or superior court of the State where the cause shall be tried, “well and truly to hear and determine the matter in question, according to the best of his judgment, without favour, affection, or hope of reward: “provided, also, that no State shall be deprived of territory for the benefit of the united states.

All controversies concerning the private right of soil claimed under different grants of two or more states, whose jurisdictions as they may respect such lands, and the states which passed such grants are adjusted, the said grants or either of them being at the same time claimed to have originated antecedent to such settlement of jurisdiction, shall, on the petition of either party to the congress of the united states, be finally determined, as near as may be, in the same manner as is before prescribed for deciding disputes respecting territorial jurisdiction between different states.

The united states, in congress assembled, shall also have the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respective states - fixing the standard of weights and measures throughout the united states - regulating the trade and managing all affairs with the Indians, not members of any of the states; provided that the legislative right of any state, within its own limits, be not infringed or violated - establishing and regulating post-offices from one state to another, throughout all the united states, and exacting such postage on the papers passing through the same, as may be requisite to defray the expenses of the said office - appointing all officers of the land forces in the service of the united States, excepting regimental officers - appointing all the officers of the naval forces, and commissioning all officers whatever in the service of the united states; making rules for the government and regulation of the said land and naval forces, and directing their operations.

The united States, in congress assembled, shall have authority to appoint a committee, to sit in the recess of congress, to be denominated, “A Committee of the States,” and to consist of one delegate from each State; and to appoint such other committees and civil officers as may be necessary for managing the general affairs of the united states under their direction - to appoint one of their number to preside; provided that no person be allowed to serve in the office of president more than one year in any term of three years; to ascertain the necessary sums of money to be raised for the service of the united states, and to appropriate and apply the same for defraying the public expenses; to borrow money or emit bills on the credit of the united states, transmitting every half year to the respective states an account of the sums of money so borrowed or emitted, - to build and equip a navy - to agree upon the number of land forces, and to make requisitions from each state for its quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants in such state, which requisition shall be binding; and thereupon the legislature of each state shall appoint the regimental officers, raise the men, and clothe, arm, and equip them, in a soldier-like manner, at the expense of the united states; and the officers and men so clothed, armed, and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the united states, in congress assembled; but if the united states, in congress assembled, shall, on consideration of circumstances, judge proper that any state should not raise men, or should raise a smaller number than its quota, and that any other state should raise a greater number of men than the quota thereof, such extra number shall be raised, officered, clothed, armed, and equipped in the same manner as the quota of such state, unless the legislature of such state shall judge that such extra number cannot be safely spared out of the same, in which case they shall raise, officer, clothe, arm, and equip, as many of such extra number as they judge can be safely spared. And the officers and men so clothed, armed, and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the united states in congress assembled.

The united states, in congress assembled, shall never engage in a war, nor grant letters of marque and reprisal in time of peace, nor enter into any treaties or alliances, nor coin money, nor regulate the value thereof nor ascertain the sums and expenses necessary for the defence and welfare of the united states, or any of them, nor emit bills, nor borrow money on the credit of the united states, nor appropriate money, nor agree upon the number of vessels of war to be built or purchased, or the number of land or sea forces to be raised, nor appoint a commander in chief of the army or navy, unless nine states assent to the same, nor shall a question on any other point, except for adjourning from day to day, be determined, unless by the votes of a majority of the united states in congress assembled.

The congress of the united states shall have power to adjourn to any time within the year, and to any place within the united states, so that no period of adjournment be for a longer duration than the space of six Months, and shall publish the Journal of their proceedings monthly, except such parts thereof relating to treaties, alliances, or military operations, as in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the delegates of each State, on any question, shall be entered on the Journal, when it is desired by any delegate; and the delegates of a State, or any of them, at his or their request, shall be furnished with a transcript of the said Journal, except such parts as are above excepted, to lay before the legislatures of the several states.

Article X. The committee of the states, or any nine of them, shall be authorized to execute, in the recess of congress, such of the powers of congress as the united states, in congress assembled, by the consent of nine states, shall, from time to time, think expedient to vest them with; provided that no power be delegated to the said committee, for the exercise of which, by the articles of confederation, the voice of nine states, in the congress of the united states assembled, is requisite.

Article XI. Canada acceding to this confederation, and joining in the measures of the united states, shall be admitted into, and entitled to all the advantages of this union: but no other colony shall be admitted into the same, unless such admission be agreed to by nine states.

Article XII. All bills of credit emitted, monies borrowed, and debts contracted by or under the authority of congress, before the assembling of the united states, in pursuance of the present confederation, shall be deemed and considered as a charge against the united States, for payment and satisfaction whereof the said united states and the public faith are hereby solemnly pledged.

Article XIII. Every State shall abide by the determinations of the united states, in congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them. And the Articles of this confederation shall be inviolably observed by every state, and the union shall be perpetual; nor shall any alteration at any time hereafter be made in any of them, unless such alteration be agreed to in a congress of the united states, and be afterwards con-firmed by the legislatures of every state.

And Whereas it hath pleased the Great Governor of the World to incline the hearts of the legislatures we respectively represent in congress, to approve of, and to authorize us to ratify the said articles of confederation and perpetual union, Know Ye, that we, the undersigned delegates, by virtue of the power and authority to us given for that purpose, do, by these presents, in the name and in behalf of our respective constituents, fully and entirely ratify and confirm each and every of the said articles of confederation and perpetual union, and all and singular the matters and things therein contained. And we do further solemnly plight and engage the faith of our respective constituents, that they shall abide by the determinations of the united states in congress assembled, on all questions, which by the said confederation are submitted to them. And that the articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the states we respectively represent, and that the union shall be perpetual. In Witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands, in Congress. Done at Philadelphia, in the State of Pennsylvania, the ninth Day of July, in the Year of our Lord one Thousand seven Hundred and Seventy eight, and in the third year of the Independence of America.

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suggested ammendments to the articles of confederation

no taxation between states

bill of rights which includes the first 10 ammendments to the united states constitution and all ammendments from greenway which are applicable to person rights

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The Declaration of Independence

IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

The 56 signatures on the Declaration appear in the positions indicated:

Column 1
Georgia:
Button Gwinnett
Lyman Hall
George Walton

Column 2
North Carolina:
William Hooper
Joseph Hewes
John Penn
South Carolina:
Edward Rutledge
Thomas Heyward, Jr.
Thomas Lynch, Jr.
Arthur Middleton

Column 3
Massachusetts:
John Hancock
Maryland:
Samuel Chase
William Paca
Thomas Stone
Charles Carroll of Carrollton
Virginia:
George Wythe
Richard Henry Lee
Thomas Jefferson
Benjamin Harrison
Thomas Nelson, Jr.
Francis Lightfoot Lee
Carter Braxton

Column 4
Pennsylvania:
Robert Morris
Benjamin Rush
Benjamin Franklin
John Morton
George Clymer
James Smith
George Taylor
James Wilson
George Ross
Delaware:
Caesar Rodney
George Read
Thomas McKean

Column 5
New York:
William Floyd
Philip Livingston
Francis Lewis
Lewis Morris
New Jersey:
Richard Stockton
John Witherspoon
Francis Hopkinson
John Hart
Abraham Clark

Column 6
New Hampshire:
Josiah Bartlett
William Whipple
Massachusetts:
Samuel Adams
John Adams
Robert Treat Paine
Elbridge Gerry
Rhode Island:
Stephen Hopkins
William Ellery
Connecticut:
Roger Sherman
Samuel Huntington
William Williams
Oliver Wolcott
New Hampshire:
Matthew Thornton

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[u.S. Nat**n*l Arch*ves and Rec*rds Adm*n**tration]
w*w.arc**ves.g*v December 27, 2016

The Constitution of the United_States_1776AD: A Transcription

Note: The following text is a transcription of the Constitution as it was inscribed by Jacob Shallus on parchment (the document on display in the Rotunda at the National Archives Museum.) The authenticated text of the Constitution can be found on the website of the Government Printing Office.

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Article. I.

Section. 1.

All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section. 2.

The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Section. 3.

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Section. 4.

The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Section. 5.

Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section. 6.

The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Section. 7.

All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section. 8.

The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;—And

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Section. 9.

The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

Section. 10.

No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

Article. II.

Section. 1.

The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:—"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."

Section. 2.

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Section. 3.

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

Section. 4.

The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

Article III.

Section. 1.

The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

Section. 2.

The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;—to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;—to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;—to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;—to Controversies between two or more States;— between a State and Citizens of another State,—between Citizens of different States,—between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

Section. 3.

Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

Article. IV.

Section. 1.

Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Section. 2.

The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.

Section. 3.

New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Section. 4.

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened), against domestic Violence.

Article. V.

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

Article. VI.

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

Article. VII.

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

The Word, "the," being interlined between the seventh and eighth Lines of the first Page, The Word "Thirty" being partly written on an Erazure in the fifteenth Line of the first Page, The Words "is tried" being interlined between the thirty second and thirty third Lines of the first Page and the Word "the" being interlined between the forty third and forty fourth Lines of the second Page.

Attest William Jackson Secretary

done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independance of the United States of America the Twelfth In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

G°. Washington
Presidt and deputy from Virginia

Delaware
Geo: Read
Gunning Bedford jun
John Dickinson
Richard Bassett
Jaco: Broom

Maryland
James McHenry
Dan of St Thos. Jenifer
Danl. Carroll

Virginia
John Blair
James Madison Jr.

North Carolina
Wm. Blount
Richd. Dobbs Spaight
Hu Williamson

South Carolina
J. Rutledge
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
Charles Pinckney
Pierce Butler

Georgia
William Few
Abr Baldwin

New Hampshire
John Langdon
Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts
Nathaniel Gorham
Rufus King

Connecticut
Wm. Saml. Johnson
Roger Sherman

New York
Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey
Wil: Livingston
David Brearley
Wm. Paterson
Jona: Dayton

Pensylvania
B Franklin
Thomas Mifflin
Robt. Morris
Geo. Clymer
Thos. FitzSimons
Jared Ingersoll
James Wilson
Gouv Morris

-

On September 25, 1789, the First Congress of the United States proposed 12 amendments to the Constitution. The 1789 Joint Resolution of Congress proposing the amendments is on display in the Rotunda in the National Archives Museum. Ten of the proposed 12 amendments were ratified by three-fourths of the state legislatures on December 15, 1791. The ratified Articles (Articles 3–12) constitute the first 10 amendments of the Constitution, or the U.S. Bill of Rights. In 1992, 203 years after it was proposed, Article 2 was ratified as the 27th Amendment to the Constitution. Article 1 was never ratified.

Transcription of the 1789 Joint Resolution of Congress Proposing 12 Amendments to the U.S. Constitution

Congress of the United States
begun and held at the City of New-York, on
Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine.

THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution.
RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all, or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution; viz.
ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution.

Article the first... After the first enumeration required by the first article of the Constitution, there shall be one Representative for every thirty thousand, until the number shall amount to one hundred, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall be not less than one hundred Representatives, nor less than one Representative for every forty thousand persons, until the number of Representatives shall amount to two hundred; after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall not be less than two hundred Representatives, nor more than one Representative for every fifty thousand persons.

Article the second... No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

Article the third... Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Article the fourth... A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Article the fifth... No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Article the sixth... The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Article the seventh... No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Article the eighth... In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

Article the ninth... In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Article the tenth... Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Article the eleventh... The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Article the twelfth... The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

ATTEST,

Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg, Speaker of the House of Representatives

John Adams, Vice-President of the United States, and President of the Senate

John Beckley, Clerk of the House of Representatives.

Sam. A Otis Secretary of the Senate

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[greenway ammendment]

The previous {"usg&border"} is repealed in favor of the foregoing {insert finalized greenway constitution}

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Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States

Signed at Montevideo, 26 December 1933
Entered into Force, 26 December 1934
Article 8 reaffirmed by Protocol, 23 December 1936

Bolivia alone amongst the states represented at the Seventh International Conference of American States did not sign the Convention. The United States of America, Peru, and Brazil ratified the Convention with reservations directly attached to the document.

green_line.gif (209 bytes)


CONVENTION ON RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF STATES

The Governments represented in the Seventh International Conference of American States:

Wishing to conclude a Convention on Rights and Duties of States, have appointed the following Plenipotentiaries:

Honduras:
Miguel PAZ Baraona
Augusto C. COELLO
Luis BOGRAN

United States of America:
Cordell HULL
Alexander W. WEDDELL
J. Reuben CLARK
J. Butler WRIGHT
Spruille BRADEN
Miss Sophonisba P. BRECKINRIDGE

El Salvador:
Hector David CASTRO
Arturo Ramon AVILA
J. Cipriano CASTRO

Dominican Republic:
Tulio M. CESTERO

Haiti:
Justin BARAU
Francis SALGADO
Antoine PIERRE-PAUL
Edmond MANGONES

Argentina:
Carlos SAAVEDRA Lamas
Juan F. CAFFERATA
Ramon S. CASTILLO
Carlos BREBBIA
Isidoro RUIZ Moreno
Luis A. PODESTA Costa
Raul PREBISCH
Daniel ANTOKOLETZ

Venezuela:
Cesar ZUMETA
Luis CHURTON
José Rafael MONTILLA

Uruguay:
Alberto MANE
Juan José AMEZAGA
José G. ANTUNA
Juan Carlos BLANCO
Senora Sofia A. V. DE DEMICHELI
Martin R. ECHEGOYEN
Luis Alberto DE HERRERA
Pedro MANINI Rios
Mateo MARQUES Castro
Rodolfo MEZZERA
Octavio MORATA
Luis MORQUIO
Teofilo PINEYRO Chain
Dardo REGULES
José SERRATO
José Pedro VARELA

Paraguay:
Justo Pastor BENITEZ
Geronimo RIART
Horacio A. FERNANDEZ
Senorita Maria F. GONZALEZ

Mexico:
José Manuel PUIG Casauranc
Alfonso REYES
Basilio VADILLO
Genaro V. VASQUEZ
Romeo ORTEGA
Manuel J. SIERRA
Eduardo SUAREZ

Panama:
J. D. AROSEMENA
Eduardo E. HOLGUIN
Oscar R. MULLER
Magin PONS

Bolivia:
Casto ROJAS
David ALVESTEGUI
Arturo PINTO Escalier

Guatemala:
Alfredo SKINNER Klee
José GONZALEZ Campo
Carlos SALAZAR
Manuel ARROYO

Brazil:
Afranio DE MELLO Franco
Lucillo A. DA CUNHA Bueno
Francisco Luis DA SILVA Campos
Gilberto AMADO
Carlos CHAGAS
Samuel RIBEIRO

Ecuador:
Augusto AGUIRRE Aparicio
Humberto ALBORNOZ
Antonio PARRA
Carlos PUIG Vilassar
Arturo SCARONE

Nicaragua:
Leonardo ARGUELLO
Manuel CORDERO Reyes
Carlos CUADRA Pasos

Colombia:
Alfonso LOPEZ
Raimundo RIVAS
José CAMACEO Carreno

Chile:
Miguel CRUCHAGA Tocornal
Octavio SENORET Silva
Gustavo RIVERA
José Ramon GUTIERREZ
Felix NIETO DEL RIO
Francisco FIGUEROA Sanchez
Benjamin COHEN

Peru:
Alfredo SOLE Y MURO
Felipe BARREDA Laos
Luis Fernan CISNEROS

Cuba:
Angel Alberto GIRAUDY
Herminio PORTELL Vila
Alfredo NOGUEIRA

Who, after having exhibited their Full Powers, which were found to be in good and due order, have agreed upon the following:



Article 1

The state as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (B) a defined territory; © government; and (d) capacity to enter into relations with the other states.



Article 2

The federal state shall constitute a sole person in the eyes of international law.



Article 3

The political existence of the state is independent of recognition by the other states. Even before recognition the state has the right to defend its integrity and independence, to provide for its conservation and prosperity, and consequently to organize itself as it sees fit, to legislate upon its interests, administer its services, and to define the jurisdiction and competence of its courts.
The exercise of these rights has no other limitation than the exercise of the rights of other states according to international law.



Article 4

States are juridically equal, enjoy the same rights, and have equal capacity in their exercise. The rights of each one do not depend upon the power which it possesses to assure its exercise, but upon the simple fact of its existence as a person under international law.



Article 5

The fundamental rights of states are not susceptible of being affected in any manner whatsoever.



Article 6

The recognition of a state merely signifies that the state which recognizes it accepts the personality of the other with all the rights and duties determined by international law. Recognition is unconditional and irrevocable.



Article 7

The recognition of a state may be express or tacit. The latter results from any act which implies the intention of recognizing the new state.



Article 8

No state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another.



Article 9

The jurisdiction of states within the limits of national territory applies to all the inhabitants.
Nationals and foreigners are under the same protection of the law and the national authorities and the foreigners may not claim rights other or more extensive than those of the nationals.



Article 10

The primary interest of states is the conservation of peace. Differences of any nature which arise between them should be settled by recognized pacific methods.



Article 11

The contracting states definitely establish as the rule of their conduct the precise obligation not to recognize territorial acquisitions or special advantages which have been obtained by force whether this consists in the employment of arms, in threatening diplomatic representations, or in any other effective coercive measure. The territory of a state is inviolable and may not be the object of military occupation nor of other measures of force imposed by another state directly or indirectly or for any motive whatever even temporarily.



Article 12

The present Convention shall not affect obligations previously entered into by the High Contracting Parties by virtue of international agreements.



Article 13

The present Convention shall be ratified by the High Contracting Parties in conformity with their respective constitutional procedures. The Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Uruguay shall transmit authentic certified copies to the governments for the aforementioned purpose of ratification. The instrument of ratification shall be deposited in the archives of the Pan American Union in Washington, which shall notify the signatory governments of said deposit. Such notification shall be considered as an exchange of ratifications.



Article 14

The present Convention will enter into force between the High Contracting Parties in the order in which they deposit their respective ratifications.



Article 15

The present Convention shall remain in force indefinitely but may be denounced by means of one year's notice given to the Pan American Union, which shall transmit it to the other signatory governments. After the expiration of this period the Convention shall cease in its effects as regards the party which denounces but shall remain in effect for the remaining High Contracting Parties.



Article 16

The present Convention shall be open for the adherence and accession of the States which are not signatories. The corresponding instruments shall be deposited in the archives of the Pan American Union which shall communicate them to the other High Contracting Parties.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the following Plenipotentiaries have signed this Convention in Spanish, English, Portuguese and French and hereunto affix their respective seals in the city of Montevideo, Republic of Uruguay, this 26th day of December, 1933.



Reservations

The Delegation of the United States of America, in signing the Convention on the Rights and Duties of States, does so with the express reservation presented to the Plenary Session of the Conference on December 22, 1933, which reservation reads as follows:

The Delegation of the United States, in voting "yes" on the final vote on this committee recommendation and proposal, makes the same reservation to the eleven articles of the project or proposal that the United States Delegation made to the first ten articles during the final vote in the full Commission, which reservation is in words as follows:

"The policy and attitude of the United States Government toward every important phase of international relationships in this hemisphere could scarcely be made more clear and definite than they have been made by both word and action especially since March 4. I [secretary of State Cordell Hull, chairman of U.S. delegation] have no disposition therefore to indulge in any repetition or rehearsal of these acts and utterances and shall not do so. Every observing person must by this time thoroughly understand that under the Roosevelt Administration the United States Government is as much opposed as any other government to interference with the freedom, the sovereignty, or other internal affairs or processes of the governments of other nations.

"In addition to numerous acts and utterances in connection with the carrying out of these doctrines and policies, President Roosevelt, during recent weeks, gave out a public statement expressing his disposition to open negotiations with the Cuban Government for the purpose of dealing with the treaty which has existed since 1903. I feel safe in undertaking to say that under our support of the general principle of non-intervention as has been suggested, no government need fear any intervention on the part of the United States under the Roosevelt Administration. I think it unfortunate that during the brief period of this Conference there is apparently not time within which to prepare interpretations and definitions of these fundamental terms that are embraced in the report. Such definitions and interpretations would enable every government to proceed in a uniform way without any difference of opinion or of interpretations. I hope that at the earliest possible date such very important work will be done. In the meantime in case of differences of interpretations and also until they (the proposed doctrines and principles) can be worked out and codified for the common use of every government, I desire to say that the United States Government in all of its international associations and relationships and conduct will follow scrupulously the doctrines and policies which it has pursued since March 4 which are embodied in the different addresses of President Roosevelt since that time and in the recent peace address of myself on the 15th day of December before this Conference and in the law of nations as generally recognized and accepted".

The delegates of Brazil and Peru recorded the following private vote with regard to article 11: "That they accept the doctrine in principle but that they do not consider it codifiable because there are some countries which have not yet signed the Anti-War Pact of Rio de Janeiro 4 of which this doctrine is a part and therefore it does not yet constitute positive international law suitable for codification".



Honduras:
Miguel PAZ Baraona
Augusto C. COELLO
Luis BOGRAN

United States of America:
Alexander W. WEDDELL
J. Butler WRIGHT

El Salvador:
Hector David CASTRO
Arturo Ramon AVILA

Dominican Republic:
Tulio M. CESTERO

Haiti:
J. BARAU
F. SALGADO
Edmond MANGONES
A. PIERRE-PAUL

Argentina:
Carlos SAAVEDRA Lamas
Juan F. CAFFERATA
Ramon S. CASTILLO
I. RUIZ Moreno
L. A. PODESTA Costa
D. ANTOKOLETZ

Venezuela:
Luis CHURTON
J. R. MONTILLA

Uruguay:
A. MANE
José Pedro VARELA
Mateo MARQUES Castro
Dardo REGULES
Sofia Alvarez Vignoli DE DEMICHELI
Teofilo PINEYRO Chain
Luis A. DE HERRERA
Martin R. ECHEGOYEN
José G. ANTUNA
J. C. BLANCO
Pedro MANINI Rios
Rodolfo MEZZERA
Octavio MORATA
Luis MORQUIO
José SERRATO

Paraguay:
Justo Pastor BENITEZ
Maria F. GONZALEZ

Mexico:
B. VADILLO
M. J. SIERRA
Eduardo SUAREZ

Panama:
J. D. AROSEMENA
Magin PONS
Eduardo E. HOLGUIN

Guatemala:
M. ARROYO

Brazil:
Lucillo A. DA CUNHA Bueno
Gilberto AMADO

Ecuador:
A. AGUIRRE Aparicio
H. ALBORNOZ
Antonio PARRA V.
C. PUIG V.
Arturo SCARONE

Nicaragua:
Leonardo ARGUELLO
M. CORDERO Reyes
Carlos CUADRA Pasos

Colombia:
Alfonso LOPEZ
Raimundo RIVAS

Chile:
Miguel CRUCHAGA
J. Ramon GUTIERREZ
F. FIGUEROA
F. NIETO DEL RIO
B. COHEN

Peru:
(with reservation set forth)
Alfredo SOLE Y MURO

Cuba:
Alberto GIRAUDY
Herminio PORTELL Vila
Ing. NOGUEIRA

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[cesedian jurisdiction]
http://fifthworld.wikia.com/wiki/Cesidian_law_jurisdiction

Cesidian law jurisdictions have four fundamental characteristics:

1. They follow liberating Cesidian law as a common law norm;
2. They observe Cyberterra Mean Time (CMT) or Cyberterra Meridian Time as a time standard and chronological format;
3. They allow Fifth World Health Organisation (5WHO) professionals to practice within their dwellings or buildings; and
4. They utilise the Cesidian Root, an intercontinental alternative DNS root.

---


8D12E80D3B570D3F114323EF32A6010741B0CD8E173D0969DBAF2068DF1A447C
AE7E6765452DB9BFF42C38A88E17381180C568FCCB04257AEDC54433DFCF112D
3E81A2E311078E3CEF781CE9A954E3401BEC0A16BA67365FE29916CA4C9A070B

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***
Officially recognized contributing international agreements
***

[]31E25A7D91E1DA7E891589F1535C1BD9AEF91E04C6D324E5A9DAFF90CC9268C9[]
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10 December 1948ad, Gaia
Convention Against Torture, 10 December 1984ad, Gaia
[]2ED7698B29D59763D5F9348C90E073BCB7AD97945A8688F48EE06B94B2CAB23A[]

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F8F21F06A8D166E3D312B191D77DF8237E1A81CC43A60191EFE9B6E1A9ACA37A

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Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10 December 1948ad, Gaia

Preamble

Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,

Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,

Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,

Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,

Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,

Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.


Article 1.


All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.


Article 2.


Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.


Article 3.


Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.


Article 4.


No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.


Article 5.


No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.


Article 6.


Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.


Article 7.


All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.


Article 8.


Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.


Article 9.


No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.


Article 10.


Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.


Article 11.


(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.


Article 12.


No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.


Article 13.


(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.
(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.


Article 14.


(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.


Article 15.


(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.


Article 16.


(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.


Article 17.


(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.


Article 18.


Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.


Article 19.


Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.


Article 20.


(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.


Article 21.


(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
(2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.


Article 22.


Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.


Article 23.


(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
(2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.


Article 24.


Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.


Article 25.


(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.


Article 26.


(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.


Article 27.


(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.


Article 28.


Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.


Article 29.


(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
(2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.


Article 30.


Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.

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D2875CD0BC8032F99AA38122C7A83033B0C308EB1518880F5D5FDD27E22859C9

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Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 10 December 1984ad, Gaia

Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 39/46 of 10 December 1984
entry into force 26 June 1987, in accordance with article 27 (1)

The States Parties to this Convention,

Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Recognizing that those rights derive from the inherent dignity of the human person,

Considering the obligation of States under the Charter, in particular Article 55, to promote universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms,

Having regard to article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and article 7 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, both of which provide that no one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment,

Having regard also to the Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Being Subjected to Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, adopted by the General Assembly on 9 December 1975,

Desiring to make more effective the struggle against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment throughout the world,

Have agreed as follows:

PART I

Article 1

1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term "torture" means any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity. It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to lawful sanctions.

2. This article is without prejudice to any international instrument or national legislation which does or may contain provisions of wider application.

Article 2

1. Each State Party shall take effective legislative, administrative, judicial or other measures to prevent acts of torture in any territory under its jurisdiction.

2. No exceptional circumstances whatsoever, whether a state of war or a threat of war, internal political instability or any other public emergency, may be invoked as a justification of torture.

3. An order from a superior officer or a public authority may not be invoked as a justification of torture.

Article 3

1. No State Party shall expel, return ("refouler") or extradite a person to another State where there are substantial grounds for believing that he would be in danger of being subjected to torture.

2. For the purpose of determining whether there are such grounds, the competent authorities shall take into account all relevant considerations including, where applicable, the existence in the State concerned of a consistent pattern of gross, flagrant or mass violations of human rights.

Article 4
1. Each State Party shall ensure that all acts of torture are offences under its criminal law. The same shall apply to an attempt to commit torture and to an act by any person which constitutes complicity or participation in torture. 2. Each State Party shall make these offences punishable by appropriate penalties which take into account their grave nature.

Article 5
1. Each State Party shall take such measures as may be necessary to establish its jurisdiction over the offences referred to in article 4 in the following cases:

(a) When the offences are committed in any territory under its jurisdiction or on board a ship or aircraft registered in that State;

(B) When the alleged offender is a national of that State;

© When the victim is a national of that State if that State considers it appropriate.

2. Each State Party shall likewise take such measures as may be necessary to establish its jurisdiction over such offences in cases where the alleged offender is present in any territory under its jurisdiction and it does not extradite him pursuant to article 8 to any of the States mentioned in paragraph I of this article.

3. This Convention does not exclude any criminal jurisdiction exercised in accordance with internal law.

Article 6

1. Upon being satisfied, after an examination of information available to it, that the circumstances so warrant, any State Party in whose territory a person alleged to have committed any offence referred to in article 4 is present shall take him into custody or take other legal measures to ensure his presence. The custody and other legal measures shall be as provided in the law of that State but may be continued only for such time as is necessary to enable any criminal or extradition proceedings to be instituted.

2. Such State shall immediately make a preliminary inquiry into the facts.

3. Any person in custody pursuant to paragraph I of this article shall be assisted in communicating immediately with the nearest appropriate representative of the State of which he is a national, or, if he is a stateless person, with the representative of the State where he usually resides.

4. When a State, pursuant to this article, has taken a person into custody, it shall immediately notify the States referred to in article 5, paragraph 1, of the fact that such person is in custody and of the circumstances which warrant his detention. The State which makes the preliminary inquiry contemplated in paragraph 2 of this article shall promptly report its findings to the said States and shall indicate whether it intends to exercise jurisdiction.

Article 7

1. The State Party in the territory under whose jurisdiction a person alleged to have committed any offence referred to in article 4 is found shall in the cases contemplated in article 5, if it does not extradite him, submit the case to its competent authorities for the purpose of prosecution.

2. These authorities shall take their decision in the same manner as in the case of any ordinary offence of a serious nature under the law of that State. In the cases referred to in article 5, paragraph 2, the standards of evidence required for prosecution and conviction shall in no way be less stringent than those which apply in the cases referred to in article 5, paragraph 1.

3. Any person regarding whom proceedings are brought in connection with any of the offences referred to in article 4 shall be guaranteed fair treatment at all stages of the proceedings.

Article 8

1. The offences referred to in article 4 shall be deemed to be included as extraditable offences in any extradition treaty existing between States Parties. States Parties undertake to include such offences as extraditable offences in every extradition treaty to be concluded between them.

2. If a State Party which makes extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty receives a request for extradition from another State Party with which it has no extradition treaty, it may consider this Convention as the legal basis for extradition in respect of such offences. Extradition shall be subject to the other conditions provided by the law of the requested State.

3. States Parties which do not make extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty shall recognize such offences as extraditable offences between themselves subject to the conditions provided by the law of the requested State.

4. Such offences shall be treated, for the purpose of extradition between States Parties, as if they had been committed not only in the place in which they occurred but also in the territories of the States required to establish their jurisdiction in accordance with article 5, paragraph 1.

Article 9

1. States Parties shall afford one another the greatest measure of assistance in connection with criminal proceedings brought in respect of any of the offences referred to in article 4, including the supply of all evidence at their disposal necessary for the proceedings.

2. States Parties shall carry out their obligations under paragraph I of this article in conformity with any treaties on mutual judicial assistance that may exist between them.

Article 10

1. Each State Party shall ensure that education and information regarding the prohibition against torture are fully included in the training of law enforcement personnel, civil or military, medical personnel, public officials and other persons who may be involved in the custody, interrogation or treatment of any individual subjected to any form of arrest, detention or imprisonment.

2. Each State Party shall include this prohibition in the rules or instructions issued in regard to the duties and functions of any such person.

Article 11
Each State Party shall keep under systematic review interrogation rules, instructions, methods and practices as well as arrangements for the custody and treatment of persons subjected to any form of arrest, detention or imprisonment in any territory under its jurisdiction, with a view to preventing any cases of torture.

Article 12
Each State Party shall ensure that its competent authorities proceed to a prompt and impartial investigation, wherever there is reasonable ground to believe that an act of torture has been committed in any territory under its jurisdiction.

Article 13
Each State Party shall ensure that any individual who alleges he has been subjected to torture in any territory under its jurisdiction has the right to complain to, and to have his case promptly and impartially examined by, its competent authorities. Steps shall be taken to ensure that the complainant and witnesses are protected against all ill-treatment or intimidation as a consequence of his complaint or any evidence given.

Article 14

1. Each State Party shall ensure in its legal system that the victim of an act of torture obtains redress and has an enforceable right to fair and adequate compensation, including the means for as full rehabilitation as possible. In the event of the death of the victim as a result of an act of torture, his dependants shall be entitled to compensation.

2. Nothing in this article shall affect any right of the victim or other persons to compensation which may exist under national law.

Article 15
Each State Party shall ensure that any statement which is established to have been made as a result of torture shall not be invoked as evidence in any proceedings, except against a person accused of torture as evidence that the statement was made.

Article 16

1. Each State Party shall undertake to prevent in any territory under its jurisdiction other acts of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment which do not amount to torture as defined in article I, when such acts are committed by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity. In particular, the obligations contained in articles 10, 11, 12 and 13 shall apply with the substitution for references to torture of references to other forms of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

2. The provisions of this Convention are without prejudice to the provisions of any other international instrument or national law which prohibits cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment or which relates to extradition or expulsion.

PART II

Article 17

1. There shall be established a Committee against Torture (hereinafter referred to as the Committee) which shall carry out the functions hereinafter provided. The Committee shall consist of ten experts of high moral standing and recognized competence in the field of human rights, who shall serve in their personal capacity. The experts shall be elected by the States Parties, consideration being given to equitable geographical distribution and to the usefulness of the participation of some persons having legal experience.

2. The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of persons nominated by States Parties. Each State Party may nominate one person from among its own nationals. States Parties shall bear in mind the usefulness of nominating persons who are also members of the Human Rights Committee established under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and who are willing to serve on the Committee against Torture.

3. Elections of the members of the Committee shall be held at biennial meetings of States Parties convened by the Secretary-General of the United Nations. At those meetings, for which two thirds of the States Parties shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be those who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of the votes of the representatives of States Parties present and voting.

4. The initial election shall be held no later than six months after the date of the entry into force of this Convention. At. Ieast four months before the date of each election, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a letter to the States Parties inviting them to submit their nominations within three months. The Secretary-General shall prepare a list in alphabetical order of all persons thus nominated, indicating the States Parties which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties.

5. The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four years. They shall be eligible for re-election if renominated. However, the term of five of the members elected at the first election shall expire at the end of two years; immediately after the first election the names of these five members shall be chosen by lot by the chairman of the meeting referred to in paragraph 3 of this article.

6. If a member of the Committee dies or resigns or for any other cause can no longer perform his Committee duties, the State Party which nominated him shall appoint another expert from among its nationals to serve for the remainder of his term, subject to the approval of the majority of the States Parties. The approval shall be considered given unless half or more of the States Parties respond negatively within six weeks after having been informed by the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the proposed appointment.

7. States Parties shall be responsible for the expenses of the members of the Committee while they are in performance of Committee duties.

Article 18

1. The Committee shall elect its officers for a term of two years. They may be re-elected.

2. The Committee shall establish its own rules of procedure, but these rules shall provide, inter alia, that:

(a) Six members shall constitute a quorum;

(B) Decisions of the Committee shall be made by a majority vote of the members present.

3. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary staff and facilities for the effective performance of the functions of the Committee under this Convention.

4. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall convene the initial meeting of the Committee. After its initial meeting, the Committee shall meet at such times as shall be provided in its rules of procedure.

5. The States Parties shall be responsible for expenses incurred in connection with the holding of meetings of the States Parties and of the Committee, including reimbursement to the United Nations for any expenses, such as the cost of staff and facilities, incurred by the United Nations pursuant to paragraph 3 of this article.

Article 19

1. The States Parties shall submit to the Committee, through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, reports on the measures they have taken to give effect to their undertakings under this Convention, within one year after the entry into force of the Convention for the State Party concerned. Thereafter the States Parties shall submit supplementary reports every four years on any new measures taken and such other reports as the Committee may request.

2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit the reports to all States Parties.

3. Each report shall be considered by the Committee which may make such general comments on the report as it may consider appropriate and shall forward these to the State Party concerned. That State Party may respond with any observations it chooses to the Committee.

4. The Committee may, at its discretion, decide to include any comments made by it in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article, together with the observations thereon received from the State Party concerned, in its annual report made in accordance with article 24. If so requested by the State Party concerned, the Committee may also include a copy of the report submitted under paragraph I of this article.

Article 20

1. If the Committee receives reliable information which appears to it to contain well-founded indications that torture is being systematically practised in the territory of a State Party, the Committee shall invite that State Party to co-operate in the examination of the information and to this end to submit observations with regard to the information concerned.

2. Taking into account any observations which may have been submitted by the State Party concerned, as well as any other relevant information available to it, the Committee may, if it decides that this is warranted, designate one or more of its members to make a confidential inquiry and to report to the Committee urgently.

3. If an inquiry is made in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article, the Committee shall seek the co-operation of the State Party concerned. In agreement with that State Party, such an inquiry may include a visit to its territory.

4. After examining the findings of its member or members submitted in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article, the Commission shall transmit these findings to the State Party concerned together with any comments or suggestions which seem appropriate in view of the situation.

5. All the proceedings of the Committee referred to in paragraphs I to 4 of th is article s hall be con fidential , and at all stages of the proceedings the co-operation of the State Party shall be sought. After such proceedings have been completed with regard to an inquiry made in accordance with paragraph 2, the Committee may, after consultations with the State Party concerned, decide to include a summary account of the results of the proceedings in its annual report made in accordance with article 24.

Article 21
1. A State Party to this Convention may at any time declare under this article that it recognizes the competence of the Committee to receive and consider communications to the effect that a State Party claims that another State Party is not fulfilling its obligations under this Convention. Such communications may be received and considered according to the procedures laid down in this article only if submitted by a State Party which has made a declaration recognizing in regard to itself the competence of the Committee. No communication shall be dealt with by the Committee under this article if it concerns a State Party which has not made such a declaration. Communications received under this article shall be dealt with in accordance with the following procedure;

(a) If a State Party considers that another State Party is not giving effect to the provisions of this Convention, it may, by written communication, bring the matter to the attention of that State Party. Within three months after the receipt of the communication the receiving State shall afford the State which sent the communication an explanation or any other statement in writing clarifying the matter, which should include, to the extent possible and pertinent, reference to domestic procedures and remedies taken, pending or available in the matter;

(B) If the matter is not adjusted to the satisfaction of both States Parties concerned within six months after the receipt by the receiving State of the initial communication, either State shall have the right to refer the matter to the Committee, by notice given to the Committee and to the other State;

© The Committee shall deal with a matter referred to it under this article only after it has ascertained that all domestic remedies have been invoked and exhausted in the matter, in conformity with the generally recognized principles of international law. This shall not be the rule where the application of the remedies is unreasonably prolonged or is unlikely to bring effective relief to the person who is the victim of the violation of this Convention;

(d) The Committee shall hold closed meetings when examining communications under this article; (e) Subject to the provisions of subparagraph

(e), the Committee shall make available its good offices to the States Parties concerned with a view to a friendly solution of the matter on the basis of respect for the obligations provided for in this Convention. For this purpose, the Committee may, when appropriate, set up an ad hoc conciliation commission;

(f) In any matter referred to it under this article, the Committee may call upon the States Parties concerned, referred to in subparagraph (B), to supply any relevant information;

(g) The States Parties concerned, referred to in subparagraph (B), shall have the right to be represented when the matter is being considered by the Committee and to make submissions orally and/or in writing;

(h) The Committee shall, within twelve months after the date of receipt of notice under subparagraph (B), submit a report:

(i) If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (e) is reached, the Committee shall confine its report to a brief statement of the facts and of the solution reached;

(ii) If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (e) is not reached, the Committee shall confine its report to a brief statement of the facts; the written submissions and record of the oral submissions made by the States Parties concerned shall be attached to the report.

In every matter, the report shall be communicated to the States Parties concerned.

2. The provisions of this article shall come into force when five States Parties to this Convention have made declarations under paragraph 1 of this article. Such declarations shall be deposited by the States Parties with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall transmit copies thereof to the other States Parties. A declaration may be withdrawn at any time by notification to the Secretary-General. Such a withdrawal shall not prejudice the consideration of any matter which is the subject of a communication already transmitted under this article; no further communication by any State Party shall be received under this article after the notification of withdrawal of the declaration has been received by the Secretary-General, unless the State Party concerned has made a new declaration.

Article 22

1. A State Party to this Convention may at any time declare under this article that it recognizes the competence of the Committee to receive and consider communications from or on behalf of individuals subject to its jurisdiction who claim to be victims of a violation by a State Party of the provisions of the Convention. No communication shall be received by the Committee if it concerns a State Party which has not made such a declaration.

2. The Committee shall consider inadmissible any communication under this article which is anonymous or which it considers to be an abuse of the right of submission of such communications or to be incompatible with the provisions of this Convention.

3. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2, the Committee shall bring any communications submitted to it under this article to the attention of the State Party to this Convention which has made a declaration under paragraph I and is alleged to be violating any provisions of the Convention. Within six months, the receiving State shall submit to the Committee written explanations or statements clarifying the matter and the remedy, if any, that may have been taken by that State.

4. The Committee shall consider communications received under this article in the light of all information made available to it by or on behalf of the individual and by the State Party concerned. 5. The Committee shall not consider any communications from an individual under this article unless it has ascertained that:

(a) The same matter has not been, and is not being, examined under another procedure of international investigation or settlement;

(B) The individual has exhausted all available domestic remedies; this shall not be the rule where the application of the remedies is unreasonably prolonged or is unlikely to bring effective reliefto the person who is the victim of the violation of this Convention.

6. The Committee shall hold closed meetings when examining communications under this article.

7. The Committee shall forward its views to the State Party concerned and to the individual.

8. The provisions of this article shall come into force when five States Parties to this Convention have made declarations under paragraph 1 of this article. Such declarations shall be deposited by the States Parties with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall transmit copies thereof to the other States Parties. A declaration may be withdrawn at any time by notification to the Secretary-General. Such a withdrawal shall not prejudice the consideration of any matter which is the subject of a communication already transmitted under this article; no further communication by or on behalf of an individual shall be received under this article after the notification of withdrawal of the declaration has been received by the SecretaryGeneral, unless the State Party has made a new declaration.

Article 23
The members of the Committee and of the ad hoc conciliation commissions which may be appointed under article 21, paragraph I (e), shall be entitled to the facilities, privileges and immunities of experts on mission for the United Nations as laid down in the relevant sections of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations.

Article 24

The Committee shall submit an annual report on its activities under this Convention to the States Parties and to the General Assembly of the United Nations.

PART III

Article 25
1. This Convention is open for signature by all States. 2. This Convention is subject to ratification. Instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 26
This Convention is open to accession by all States. Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the SecretaryGeneral of the United Nations.

Article 27

1. This Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of the deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession.

2. For each State ratifying this Convention or acceding to it after the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of the deposit of its own instrument of ratification or accession.

Article 28

1. Each State may, at the time of signature or ratification of this Convention or accession thereto, declare that it does not recognize the competence of the Committee provided for in article 20.

2. Any State Party having made a reservation in accordance with paragraph I of this article may, at any time, withdraw this reservation by notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 29

1 . Any State Party to this Convention may propose an amendment and file it with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The SecretaryGeneral shall thereupon communicate the proposed amendment to the States Parties with a request that they notify him whether they favour a conference of States Parties for the purpose of considering an d voting upon the proposal. In the event that within four months from the date of such communication at least one third of the States Parties favours such a conference, the SecretaryGeneral shall convene the conference under the auspices of the United Nations. Any amendment adopted by a majority of the States Parties present and voting at the conference shall be submitted by the Secretary-General to all the States Parties for acceptance.

2. An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph I of this article shall enter into force when two thirds of the States Parties to this Convention have notified the Secretary-General of the United Nations that they have accepted it in accordance with their respective constitutional processes.

3. When amendments enter into force, they shall be binding on those States Parties which have accepted them, other States Parties still being bound by the provisions of this Convention and any earlier amendments which they have accepted.

Article 30

1. Any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention which cannot be settled through negotiation shall, at the request of one of them, be submitted to arbitration. If within six months from thc date of the request for arbitration the Parties are unable to agree on the organization of the arbitration, any one of those Parties may refer the dispute to the International Court of Justice by request in conformity with the Statute of the Court.

2. Each State may, at the time of signature or ratification of this Con vention or accession thereto, declare that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph I of this article. The other States Parties shall not be bound by paragraph I of this article with respect to any State Party having made such a reservation.

3. Any State Party having made a reservation in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article may at any time withdraw this reservation by notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 31

1. A State Party may denounce this Convention by written notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Denunciation becomes effective one year after the date of receipt of- the notification by the Secretary-General .

2. Such a denunciation shall not have the effect of releasing the State Party from its obligations under this Convention in regard to any act or omission which occurs prior to the date at which the denunciation becomes effective, nor shall denunciation prejudice in any way the continued consideration of any matter which is already under consideration by the Committee prior to the date at which the denunciation becomes effective.

3. Following the date at which the denunciation of a State Party becomes effective, the Committee shall not commence consideration of any new matter regarding that State.

Article 32
The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all States Members of the United Nations and all States which have signed this Convention or acceded to it of the following:

(a) Signatures, ratifications and accessions under articles 25 and 26;

(B) The date of entry into force of this Convention under article 27 and the date of the entry into force of any amendments under article 29;

© Denunciations under article 31.

Article 33

1. This Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit certified copies of this Convention to all States.

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7C7F6B8669FE01510BD1FB253197E5D576D4AC25D7B684580668079E8FEF4ED6

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Geneva Convention III: relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War



The Geneva Conventions

Preamble

Part I. General Provisions

Part II. General Protection of Prisoners of War

Part III. Captivity

Section I. Beginning of Captivity
Section II. Internment of Prisoners of War
Chapter I. General Observations
Chapter II. Quarters, Food and Clothing of Prisoners of War
Chapter III. Hygiene and Medical Attention
Chapter IV. Medical Personnel and Chaplains Retained to Assist Prisoners of War
Chapter V. Religious, Intellectual and Physical Activities
Chapter VI. Discipline
Chapter VII. Rank of Prisoners of War
Chapter VIII. Transfer of Prisoners of War after their Arrival in Camp
Section III. Labour of Prisoners of War
Section IV. Financial Resources of Prisoners of War
Section V. Relations of Prisoners of War With the Exterior
Section VI. Relations Between Prisoners of War and the Authorities
Chapter I. Complaints of Prisoners of War Respecting the Conditions of Captivity
Chapter II. Prisoner of War Representatives
Chapter III. Penal and Disciplinary Sanctions

Part IV. Termination of Captivity

Section I. Direct Repatriation and Accommodation in Neutral Countries
Section II. Release and Repatriation of Prisoners of War at the Close of Hostilities
Section III. Death of Prisoners of War

Part V. Information Bureaux and Relief Societies for Prisoners of War

Part VI. Execution of the Convention

Section I. General Provisions
Section II. Final Provisions

Annex I

Annex II

Annex III

Annex IV

Annex V

Preamble

The undersigned Plenipotentiaries of the Governments represented at the Diplomatic Conference held at Geneva from April 21 to August 12, 1949, for the purpose of revising the Convention concluded at Geneva on July 27, 1929, relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, have agreed as follows:

Part I. General Provisions

Article 1.

The High Contracting Parties undertake to respect and to ensure respect for the present Convention in all circumstances.

Article 2.

In addition to the provisions which shall be implemented in peace time, the present Convention shall apply to all cases of declared war or of any other armed conflict which may arise between two or more of the High Contracting Parties, even if the state of war is not recognized by one of them.

The Convention shall also apply to all cases of partial or total occupation of the territory of a High Contracting Party, even if the said occupation meets with no armed resistance.

Although one of the Powers in conflict may not be a party to the present Convention, the Powers who are parties thereto shall remain bound by it in their mutual relations. They shall furthermore be bound by the Convention in relation to the said Power, if the latter accepts and applies the provisions thereof.

Article 3.

In the case of armed conflict not of an international character occurring in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties, each Party to the conflict shall be bound to apply, as a minimum, the following provisions:

Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause, shall in all circumstances be treated humanely, without any adverse distinction founded on race, colour, religion or faith, sex, birth or wealth, or any other similar criteria. To this end the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned persons:

violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture;

taking of hostages;

outrages upon personal dignity, in particular, humiliating and degrading treatment;

the passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly constituted court affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples.

The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for. An impartial humanitarian body, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, may offer its services to the Parties to the conflict.

The Parties to the conflict should further endeavour to bring into force, by means of special agreements, all or part of the other provisions of the present Convention.

The application of the preceding provisions shall not affect the legal status of the Parties to the conflict.

Article 4.

A. Prisoners of war, in the sense of the present Convention, are persons belonging to one of the following categories, who have fallen into the power of the enemy:

Members of the armed forces of a Party to the conflict, as well as members of militias or volunteer corps forming part of such armed forces.

Members of other militias and members of other volunteer corps, including those of organized resistance movements, belonging to a Party to the conflict and operating in or outside their own territory, even if this territory is occupied, provided that such militias or volunteer corps, including such organized resistance movements, fulfil the following conditions:

that of being commanded by a person responsible for his subordinates;

that of having a fixed distinctive sign recognizable at a distance;

that of carrying arms openly;

that of conducting their operations in accordance with the laws and customs of war.

Members of regular armed forces who profess allegiance to a government or an authority not recognized by the Detaining Power.

Persons who accompany the armed forces without actually being members thereof, such as civilian members of military aircraft crews, war correspondents, supply contractors, members of labour units or of services responsible for the welfare of the armed forces, provided that they have received authorization, from the armed forces which they accompany, who shall provide them for that purpose with an identity card similar to the annexed model.

Members of crews, including masters, pilots and apprentices, of the merchant marine and the crews of civil aircraft of the Parties to the conflict, who do not benefit by more favourable treatment under any other provisions of international law.

Inhabitants of a non-occupied territory, who on the approach of the enemy spontaneously take up arms to resist the invading forces, without having had time to form themselves into regular armed units, provided they carry arms openly and respect the laws and customs of war.

B. The following shall likewise be treated as prisoners of war under the present Convention:

Persons belonging, or having belonged, to the armed forces of the occupied country, if the occupying Power considers it necessary by reason of such allegiance to intern them, even though it has originally liberated them while hostilities were going on outside the territory it occupies, in particular where such persons have made an unsuccessful attempt to rejoin the armed forces to which they belong and which are engaged in combat, or where they fail to comply with a summons made to them with a view to internment.

The persons belonging to one of the categories enumerated in the present Article, who have been received by neutral or non-belligerent Powers on their territory and whom these Powers are required to intern under international law, without prejudice to any more favourable treatment which these Powers may choose to give and with the exception of Articles 8, 10, 15, 30, fifth paragraph, 58-67, 92, 126 and, where diplomatic relations exist between the Parties to the conflict and the neutral or non-belligerent Power concerned, those Articles concerning the Protecting Power. Where such diplomatic relations exist, the Parties to a conflict on whom these persons depend shall be allowed to perform towards them the functions of a Protecting Power as provided in the present Convention, without prejudice to the functions which these Parties normally exercise in conformity with diplomatic and consular usage and treaties.

C. This Article shall in no way affect the status of medical personnel and chaplains as provided for in Article 33 of the present Convention.

Article 5.

The present Convention shall apply to the persons referred to in Article 4 from the time they fall into the power of the enemy and until their final release and repatriation.

Should any doubt arise as to whether persons, having committed a belligerent act and having fallen into the hands of the enemy, belong to any of the categories enumerated in Article 4, such persons shall enjoy the protection of the present Convention until such time as their status has been determined by a competent tribunal.

Article 6.

In addition to the agreements expressly provided for in Articles 10, 23, 28, 33, 60, 65, 66, 67, 72, 73, 75, 109, 110, 118, 119, 122 and 132, the High Contracting Parties may conclude other special agreements for all matters concerning which they may deem it suitable to make separate provision. No special agreement shall adversely affect the situation of prisoners of war, as defined by the present Convention, nor restrict the rights which it confers upon them.

Prisoners of war shall continue to have the benefit of such agreements as long as the Convention is applicable to them, except where express provisions to the contrary are contained in the aforesaid or in subsequent agreements, or where more favourable measures have been taken with regard to them by one or other of the Parties to the conflict.

Article 7.

Prisoners of war may in no circumstances renounce in part or in entirety the rights secured to them by the present Convention, and by the special agreements referred to in the foregoing Article, if such there be.

Article 8.

The present Convention shall be applied with the cooperation and under the scrutiny of the Protecting Powers whose duty it is to safeguard the interests of the Parties to the conflict. For this purpose, the Protecting Powers may appoint, apart from their diplomatic or consular staff, delegates from amongst their own nationals or the nationals of other neutral Powers. The said delegates shall be subject to the approval of the Power with which they are to carry out their duties.

The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate to the greatest extent possible the task of the representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers.

The representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall not in any case exceed their mission under the present Convention. They shall, in particular, take account of the imperative necessities of security of the State wherein they carry out their duties.

Article 9.

The provisions of the present Convention constitute no obstacle to the humanitarian activities which the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other impartial humanitarian organization may, subject to the consent of the Parties to the conflict concerned, undertake for the protection of prisoners of war and for their relief.

Article 10.

The High Contracting Parties may at any time agree to entrust to an organization which offers all guarantees of impartiality and efficacy the duties incumbent on the Protecting Powers by virtue of the present Convention.

When prisoners of war do not benefit or cease to benefit, no matter for what reason, by the activities of a Protecting Power or of an organization provided for in the first paragraph above, the Detaining Power shall request a neutral State, or such an organization, to undertake the functions performed under the present Convention by a Protecting Power designated by the Parties to a conflict.

If protection cannot be arranged accordingly, the Detaining Power shall request or shall accept, subject to the provisions of this Article, the offer of the services of a humanitarian organization, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross to assume the humanitarian functions performed by Protecting Powers under the present Convention.

Any neutral Power or any organization invited by the Power concerned or offering itself for these purposes, shall be required to act with a sense of responsibility towards the Party to the conflict on which persons protected by the present Convention depend, and shall be required to furnish sufficient assurances that it is in a position to undertake the appropriate functions and to discharge them impartially.

No derogation from the preceding provisions shall be made by special agreements between Powers one of which is restricted, even temporarily, in its freedom to negotiate with the other Power or its allies by reason of military events, more particularly where the whole, or a substantial part, of the territory of the said Power is occupied.

Whenever in the present Convention mention is made of a Protecting Power, such mention applies to substitute organizations in the sense of the present Article.

Article 11.

In cases where they deem it advisable in the interest of protected persons, particularly in cases of disagreement between the Parties to the conflict as to the application or interpretation of the provisions of the present Convention, the Protecting Powers shall lend their good offices with a view to settling the disagreement.

For this purpose, each of the Protecting Powers may, either at the invitation of one Party or on its own initiative, propose to the Parties to the conflict a meeting of their representatives, and in particular of the authorities responsible for prisoners of war, possibly on neutral territory suitably chosen. The Parties to the conflict shall be bound to give effect to the proposals made to them for this purpose. The Protecting Powers may, if necessary, propose for approval by the Parties to the conflict a person belonging to a neutral Power, or delegated by the International Committee of the Red Cross, who shall be invited to take part in such a meeting.

Part II. General Protection of Prisoners of War

Article 12.

Prisoners of war are in the hands of the enemy Power, but not of the individuals or military units who have captured them. Irrespective of the individual responsibilities that may exist, the Detaining Power is responsible for the treatment given them.

Prisoners of war may only be transferred by the Detaining Power to a Power which is a party to the Convention and after the Detaining Power has satisfied itself of the willingness and ability of such transferee Power to apply the Convention. When prisoners of war are transferred under such circumstances, responsibility for the application of the Convention rests on the Power accepting them while they are in its custody.

Nevertheless, if that Power fails to carry out the provisions of the Convention in any important respect, the Power by whom the prisoners of war were transferred shall, upon being notified by the Protecting Power, take effective measures to correct the situation or shall request the return of the prisoners of war. Such requests must be complied with.

Article 13.

Prisoners of war must at all times be humanely treated. Any unlawful act or omission by the Detaining Power causing death or seriously endangering the health of a prisoner of war in its custody is prohibited, and will be regarded as a serious breach of the present Convention. In particular, no prisoner of war may be subjected to physical mutilation or to medical or scientific experiments of any kind which are not justified by the medical, dental or hospital treatment of the prisoner concerned and carried out in his interest.

Likewise, prisoners of war must at all times be protected, particularly against acts of violence or intimidation and against insults and public curiosity.

Measures of reprisal against prisoners of war are prohibited.

Article 14.

Prisoners of war are entitled in all circumstances to respect for their persons and their honour.

Women shall be treated with all the regard due to their sex and shall in all cases benefit by treatment as favourable as that granted to men.

Prisoners of war shall retain the full civil capacity which they enjoyed at the time of their capture. The Detaining Power may not restrict the exercise, either within or without its own territory, of the rights such capacity confers except in so far as the captivity requires.

Article 15.

The Power detaining prisoners of war shall be bound to provide free of charge for their maintenance and for the medical attention required by their state of health.

Article 16.

Taking into consideration the provisions of the present Convention relating to rank and sex, and subject to any privileged treatment which may be accorded to them by reason of their state of health, age or professional qualifications, all prisoners of war shall be treated alike by the Detaining Power, without any adverse distinction based on race, nationality, religious belief or political opinions, or any other distinction founded on similar criteria.

Part III. Captivity

Section I. Beginning of Captivity

Article 17.

Every prisoner of war, when questioned on the subject, is bound to give only his surname, first names and rank, date of birth, and army, regimental, personal or serial number, or failing this, equivalent information.

If he wilfully infringes this rule, he may render himself liable to a restriction of the privileges accorded to his rank or status.

Each Party to a conflict is required to furnish the persons under its jurisdiction who are liable to become prisoners of war, with an identity card showing the owner's surname, first names, rank, army, regimental, personal or serial number or equivalent information, and date of birth. The identity card may, furthermore, bear the signature or the fingerprints, or both, of the owner, and may bear, as well, any other information the Party to the conflict may wish to add concerning persons belonging to its armed forces. As far as possible the card shall measure 6.5 x 10 cm. and shall be issued in duplicate. The identity card shall be shown by the prisoner of war upon demand, but may in no case be taken away from him.

No physical or mental torture, nor any other form of coercion, may be inflicted on prisoners of war to secure from them information of any kind whatever. Prisoners of war who refuse to answer may not be threatened, insulted, or exposed to unpleasant or disadvantageous treatment of any kind.

Prisoners of war who, owing to their physical or mental condition, are unable to state their identity, shall be handed over to the medical service. The identity of such prisoners shall be established by all possible means, subject to the provisions of the preceding paragraph.

The questioning of prisoners of war shall be carried out in a language which they understand.

Article 18.

All effects and articles of personal use, except arms, horses, military equipment and military documents, shall remain in the possession of prisoners of war, likewise their metal helmets and gas masks and like articles issued for personal protection. Effects and articles used for their clothing or feeding shall likewise remain in their possession, even if such effects and articles belong to their regulation military equipment.

At no time should prisoners of war be without identity documents. The Detaining Power shall supply such documents to prisoners of war who possess none.

Badges of rank and nationality, decorations and articles having above all a personal or sentimental value may not be taken from prisoners of war.

Sums of money carried by prisoners of war may not be taken away from them except by order of an officer, and after the amount and particulars of the owner have been recorded in a special register and an itemized receipt has been given, legibly inscribed with the name, rank and unit of the person issuing the said receipt. Sums in the currency of the Detaining Power, or which are changed into such currency at the prisoner's request, shall be placed to the credit of the prisoner's account as provided in Article 64.

The Detaining Power may withdraw articles of value from prisoners of war only for reasons of security; when such articles are withdrawn, the procedure laid down for sums of money impounded shall apply.

Such objects, likewise sums taken away in any currency other than that of the Detaining Power and the conversion of which has not been asked for by the owners, shall be kept in the custody of the Detaining Power and shall be returned in their initial shape to prisoners of war at the end of their captivity.

Article 19.

Prisoners of war shall be evacuated, as soon as possible after their capture, to camps situated in an area far enough from the combat zone for them to be out of danger.

Only those prisoners of war who, owing to wounds or sickness, would run greater risks by being evacuated than by remaining where they are, may be temporarily kept back in a danger zone.

Prisoners of war shall not be unnecessarily exposed to danger while awaiting evacuation from a fighting zone.

Article 20.

The evacuation of prisoners of war shall always be effected humanely and in conditions similar to those for the forces of the Detaining Power in their changes of station.

The Detaining Power shall supply prisoners of war who are being evacuated with sufficient food and potable water, and with the necessary clothing and medical attention. The Detaining Power shall take all suitable precautions to ensure their safety during evacuation, and shall establish as soon as possible a list of the prisoners of war who are evacuated.

If prisoners of war must, during evacuation, pass through transit camps, their stay in such camps shall be as brief as possible.

Section II. Internment of Prisoners of War

Chapter I. General Observations

Article 21.

The Detaining Power may subject prisoners of war to internment. It may impose on them the obligation of not leaving, beyond certain limits, the camp where they are interned, or if the said camp is fenced in, of not going outside its perimeter. Subject to the provisions of the present Convention relative to penal and disciplinary sanctions, prisoners of war may not be held in close confinement except where necessary to safeguard their health and then only during the continuation of the circumstances which make such confinement necessary.

Prisoners of war may be partially or wholly released on parole or promise, in so far as is allowed by the laws of the Power on which they depend. Such measures shall be taken particularly in cases where this may contribute to the improvement of their state of health. No prisoner of war shall be compelled to accept liberty on parole or promise.

Upon the outbreak of hostilities, each Party to the conflict shall notify the adverse Party of the laws and regulations allowing or forbidding its own nationals to accept liberty on parole or promise. Prisoners of war who are paroled or who have given their promise in conformity with the laws and regulations so notified, are bound on their personal honour scrupulously to fulfil, both towards the Power on which they depend and towards the Power which has captured them, the engagements of their paroles or promises. In such cases, the Power on which they depend is bound neither to require nor to accept from them any service incompatible with the parole or promise given.

Article 22.

Prisoners of war may be interned only in premises located on land and affording every guarantee of hygiene and healthfulness. Except in particular cases which are justified by the interest of the prisoners themselves, they shall not be interned in penitentiaries.

Prisoners of war interned in unhealthy areas, or where the climate is injurious for them, shall be removed as soon as possible to a more favourable climate.

The Detaining Power shall assemble prisoners of war in camps or camp compounds according to their nationality, language and customs, provided that such prisoners shall not be separated from prisoners of war belonging to the armed forces with which they were serving at the time of their capture, except with their consent.

Article 23.

No prisoner of war may at any time be sent to, or detained in areas where he may be exposed to the fire of the combat zone, nor may his presence be used to render certain points or areas immune from military operations.

Prisoners of war shall have shelters against air bombardment and other hazards of war, to the same extent as the local civilian population. With the exception of those engaged in the protection of their quarters against the aforesaid hazards, they may enter such shelters as soon as possible after the giving of the alarm. Any other protective measure taken in favour of the population shall also apply to them.

Detaining Powers shall give the Powers concerned, through the intermediary of the Protecting Powers, all useful information regarding the geographical location of prisoner of war camps.

Whenever military considerations permit, prisoner of war camps shall be indicated in the day-time by the letters PW or PG, placed so as to be clearly visible from the air. The Powers concerned may, however, agree upon any other system of marking. Only prisoner of war camps shall be marked as such.

Article 24.

Transit or screening camps of a permanent kind shall be fitted out under conditions similar to those described in the present Section, and the prisoners therein shall have the same treatment as in other camps.

Chapter II. Quarters, Food and Clothing of Prisoners of War

Article 25.

Prisoners of war shall be quartered under conditions as favourable as those for the forces of the Detaining Power who are billeted in the same area. The said conditions shall make allowance for the habits and customs of the prisoners and shall in no case be prejudicial to their health.

The foregoing provisions shall apply in particular to the dormitories of prisoners of war as regards both total surface and minimum cubic space, and the general installations, bedding and blankets.

The premises provided for the use of prisoners of war individually or collectively, shall be entirely protected from dampness and adequately heated and lighted, in particular between dusk and lights out. All precautions must be taken against the danger of fire.

In any camps in which women prisoners of war, as well as men, are accommodated, separate dormitories shall be provided for them.

Article 26.

The basic daily food rations shall be sufficient in quantity, quality and variety to keep prisoners of war in good health and to prevent loss of weight or the development of nutritional deficiencies. Account shall also be taken of the habitual diet of the prisoners.

The Detaining Power shall supply prisoners of war who work with such additional rations as are necessary for the labour on which they are employed.

Sufficient drinking water shall be supplied to prisoners of war. The use of tobacco shall be permitted.

Prisoners of war shall, as far as possible, be associated with the preparation of their meals; they may be employed for that purpose in the kitchens. Furthermore, they shall be given the means of preparing, themselves, the additional food in their possession.

Adequate premises shall be provided for messing.

Collective disciplinary measures affecting food are prohibited.

Article 27.

Clothing, underwear and footwear shall be supplied to prisoners of war in sufficient quantities by the Detaining Power, which shall make allowance for the climate of the region where the prisoners are detained. Uniforms of enemy armed forces captured by the Detaining Power should, if suitable for the climate, be made available to clothe prisoners of war.

The regular replacement and repair of the above articles shall be assured by the Detaining Power. In addition, prisoners of war who work shall receive appropriate clothing, wherever the nature of the work demands.

Article 28.

Canteens shall be installed in all camps, where prisoners of war may procure foodstuffs, soap and tobacco and ordinary articles in daily use. The tariff shall never be in excess of local market prices.

The profits made by camp canteens shall be used for the benefit of the prisoners; a special fund shall be created for this purpose. The prisoners' representative shall have the right to collaborate in the management of the canteen and of this fund.

When a camp is closed down, the credit balance of the special fund shall be handed to an international welfare organization, to be employed for the benefit of prisoners of war of the same nationality as those who have contributed to the fund. In case of a general repatriation, such profits shall be kept by the Detaining Power, subject to any agreement to the contrary between the Powers concerned.

Chapter III. Hygiene and Medical Attention

Article 29.

The Detaining Power shall be bound to take all sanitary measures necessary to ensure the cleanliness and healthfulness of camps and to prevent epidemics.

Prisoners of war shall have for their use, day and night, conveniences which conform to the rules of hygiene and are maintained in a constant state of cleanliness. In any camps in which women prisoners of war are accommodated, separate conveniences shall be provided for them.

Also, apart from the baths and showers with which the camps shall be furnished prisoners of war shall be provided with sufficient water and soap for their personal toilet and for washing their personal laundry; the necessary installations, facilities and time shall be granted them for that purpose.

Article 30.

Every camp shall have an adequate infirmary where prisoners of war may have the attention they require, as well as appropriate diet. Isolation wards shall, if necessary, be set aside for cases of contagious or mental disease.

Prisoners of war suffering from serious disease, or whose condition necessitates special treatment, a surgical operation or hospital care, must be admitted to any military or civilian medical unit where such treatment can be given, even if their repatriation is contemplated in the near future. Special facilities shall be afforded for the care to be given to the disabled, in particular to the blind, and for their. rehabilitation, pending repatriation.

Prisoners of war shall have the attention, preferably, of medical personnel of the Power on which they depend and, if possible, of their nationality.

Prisoners of war may not be prevented from presenting themselves to the medical authorities for examination. The detaining authorities shall, upon request, issue to every prisoner who has undergone treatment, an official certificate indicating the nature of his illness or injury, and the duration and kind of treatment received. A duplicate of this certificate shall be forwarded to the Central Prisoners of War Agency.

The costs of treatment, including those of any apparatus necessary for the maintenance of prisoners of war in good health, particularly dentures and other artificial appliances, and spectacles, shall be borne by the Detaining Power.

Article 31.

Medical inspections of prisoners of war shall be held at least once a month. They shall include the checking and the recording of the weight of each prisoner of war.

Their purpose shall be, in particular, to supervise the general state of health, nutrition and cleanliness of prisoners and to detect contagious diseases, especially tuberculosis, malaria and venereal disease. For this purpose the most efficient methods available shall be employed, e.g. periodic mass miniature radiography for the early detection of tuberculosis.

Article 32.

Prisoners of war who, though not attached to the medical service of their armed forces, are physicians, surgeons, dentists, nurses or medical orderlies, may be required by the Detaining Power to exercise their medical functions in the interests of prisoners of war dependent on the same Power. In that case they shall continue to be prisoners of war, but shall receive the same treatment as corresponding medical personnel retained by the Detaining Power. They shall be exempted from any other work under Article 49.

Chapter IV. Medical Personnel and Chaplains Retained to Assist Prisoners of War

Article 33.

Members of the medical personnel and chaplains while retained by the Detaining Power with a view to assisting prisoners of war, shall not be considered as prisoners of war. They shall, however, receive as a minimum the benefits and protection of the present Convention, and shall also be granted all facilities necessary to provide for the medical care of, and religious ministration to prisoners of war.

They shall continue to exercise their medical and spiritual functions for the benefit of prisoners of war, preferably those belonging to the armed forces upon which they depend, within the scope of the military laws and regulations of the Detaining Power and under the control of its competent services, in accordance with their professional etiquette. They shall also benefit by the following facilities in the exercise of their medical or spiritual functions:

They shall be authorized to visit periodically prisoners of war situated in working detachments or in hospitals outside the camp. For this purpose, the Detaining Power shall place at their disposal the necessary means of transport.

The senior medical officer in each camp shall be responsible to the camp military authorities for everything connected with the activities of retained medical personnel. For this purpose, Parties to the conflict shall agree at the outbreak of hostilities on the subject of the corresponding ranks of the medical personnel, including that of societies mentioned in Article 26 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949. This senior medical officer, as well as chaplains, shall have the right to deal with the competent authorities of the camp on all questions relating to their duties. Such authorities shall afford them all necessary facilities for correspondence relating to these questions.

Although they shall be subject to the internal discipline of the camp in which they are retained, such personnel may not be compelled to carry out any work other than that concerned with their medical or religious duties.

During hostilities, the Parties to the conflict shall agree concerning the possible relief of retained personnel and shall settle the procedure to be followed.

None of the preceding provisions shall relieve the Detaining Power of its obligations with regard to prisoners of war from the medical or spiritual point of view.

Chapter V. Religious, Intellectual and Physical Activities

Article 34.

Prisoners of war shall enjoy complete latitude in the exercise of their religious duties, including attendance at the service of their faith, on condition that they comply with the disciplinary routine prescribed by the military authorities.

Adequate premises shall be provided where religious services may be held.

Article 35.

Chaplains who fall into the hands of the enemy Power and who remain or are retained with a view to assisting prisoners of war, shall be allowed to minister to them and to exercise freely their ministry amongst prisoners of war of the same religion, in accordance with their religious conscience. They shall be allocated among the various camps and labour detachments containing prisoners of war belonging to the same forces, speaking the same language or practising the same religion. They shall enjoy the necessary facilities, including the means of transport provided for in Article 33, for visiting the prisoners of war outside their camp. They shall be free to correspond, subject to censorship, on matters concerning their religious duties with the ecclesiastical authorities in the country of detention and with international religious organizations. Letters and cards which they may send for this purpose shall be in addition to the quota provided for in Article 71.

Article 36.

Prisoners of war who are ministers of religion, without having officiated as chaplains to their own forces, shall be at liberty, whatever their denomination, to minister freely to the members of their community. For this purpose, they shall receive the same treatment as the chaplains retained by the Detaining Power. They shall not be obliged to do any other work.

Article 37.

When prisoners of war have not the assistance of a retained chaplain or of a prisoner of war minister of their faith, a minister belonging to the prisoners' or a similar denomination, or in his absence a qualified layman, if such a course is feasible from a confessional point of view, shall be appointed, at the request of the prisoners concerned, to fill this office. This appointment, subject to the approval of the Detaining Power, shall take place with the agreement of the community of prisoners concerned and, wherever necessary, with the approval of the local religious authorities of the same faith. The person thus appointed shall comply with all regulations established by the Detaining Power in the interests of discipline and military security.

Article 38.

While respecting the individual preferences of every prisoner, the Detaining Power shall encourage the practice of intellectual, educational, and recreational pursuits, sports and games amongst prisoners, and shall take the measures necessary to ensure the exercise thereof by providing them with adequate premises and necessary equipment.

Prisoners shall have opportunities for taking physical exercise, including sports and games, and for being out of doors. Sufficient open spaces shall be provided for this purpose in all camps.

Chapter VI. Discipline

Article 39.

Every prisoner of war camp shall be put under the immediate authority of a responsible commissioned officer belonging to the regular armed forces of the Detaining Power. Such officer shall have in his possession a copy of the present Convention; he shall ensure that its provisions are known to the camp staff and the guard and shall be responsible, under the direction of his government, for its application.

Prisoners of war, with the exception of officers, must salute and show to all officers of the Detaining Power the external marks of respect provided for by the regulations applying in their own forces.

Officer prisoners of war are bound to salute only officers of a higher rank of the Detaining Power; they must, however, salute the camp commander regardless of his rank.

Article 40.

The wearing of badges of rank and nationality, as well as of decorations, shall be permitted.

Article 41.

In every camp the text of the present Convention and its Annexes and the contents of any special agreement provided for in Article 6, shall be posted, in the prisoners' own language, in places where all may read them. Copies shall be supplied, on request, to the prisoners who cannot have access to the copy which has been posted.

Regulations, orders, notices and publications of every kind relating to the conduct of prisoners of war shall be issued to them in a language which they understand. Such regulations, orders and publications shall be posted in the manner described above and copies shall be handed to the prisoners' representative. Every order and command addressed to prisoners of war individually must likewise be given in a language which they understand.

Article 42.

The use of weapons against prisoners of war, especially against those who are escaping or attempting to escape, shall constitute an extreme measure, which shall always be preceded by warnings appropriate to the circumstances.

Chapter VII. Rank of Prisoners of War

Article 43.

Upon the outbreak of hostilities, the Parties to the conflict shall communicate to one another the titles and ranks of all the persons mentioned in Article 4 of the present Convention, in order to ensure equality of treatment between prisoners of equivalent rank. Titles and ranks which are subsequently created shall form the subject of similar communications.

The Detaining Power shall recognize promotions in rank which have been accorded to prisoners of war and which have been duly notified by the Power on which these prisoners depend.

Article 44.

Officers and prisoners of equivalent status shall be treated with the regard due to their rank and age.

In order to ensure service in officers' camps, other ranks of the same armed forces who, as far as possible, speak the same language, shall be assigned in sufficient numbers, account being taken of the rank of officers and prisoners of equivalent status. Such orderlies shall not be required to perform any other work.

Supervision of the mess by the officers themselves shall be facilitated in every way.

Article 45.

Prisoners of war other than officers and prisoners of equivalent status shall be treated with the regard due to their rank and age.

Supervision of the mess by the prisoners themselves shall be facilitated in every way.

Chapter VIII. Transfer of Prisoners of War after their Arrival in Camp

Article 46.

The Detaining Power, when deciding upon the transfer of prisoners of war, shall take into account the interests of the prisoners themselves, more especially so as not to increase the difficulty of their repatriation.

The transfer of prisoners of war shall always be effected humanely and in conditions not less favourable than those under which the forces of the Detaining Power are transferred. Account shall always be taken of the climatic conditions to which the prisoners of war are accustomed and the conditions of transfer shall in no case be prejudicial to their health.

The Detaining Power shall supply prisoners of war during transfer with sufficient food and drinking water to keep them in good health, likewise with the necessary clothing, shelter and medical attention. The Detaining Power shall take adequate precautions especially in case of transport by sea or by air, to ensure their safety during transfer, and shall draw up a complete list of all transferred prisoners before their departure.

Article 47.

Sick or wounded prisoners of war shall not be transferred as long as their recovery may be endangered by the journey, unless their safety imperatively demands it.

If the combat zone draws closer to a camp, the prisoners of war in the said camp shall not be transferred unless their transfer can be carried out in adequate conditions of safety, or unless they are exposed to greater risks by remaining on the spot than by being transferred.

Article 48.

In the event of transfer, prisoners of war shall be officially advised of their departure and of their new postal address. Such notifications shall be given in time for them to pack their luggage and inform their next of kin.

They shall be allowed to take with them their personal effects, and the correspondence and parcels which have arrived for them. The weight of such baggage may be limited, if the conditions of transfer so require, to what each prisoner can reasonably carry, which shall in no case be more than twenty-five kilograms per head.

Mail and parcels addressed to their former camp shall be forwarded to them without delay. The camp commander shall take, in agreement with the prisoners' representative, any measures needed to ensure the transport of the prisoners' community property and of the luggage they are unable to take with them in consequence of restrictions imposed by virtue of the second paragraph of this Article.

The costs of transfers shall be borne by the Detaining Power.
Section III. Labour of Prisoners of War

Article 49.

The Detaining Power may utilize the labour of prisoners of war who are physically fit, taking into account their age, sex, rank and physical aptitude, and with a view particularly to maintaining them in a good state of physical and mental health.

Non-commissioned officers who are prisoners of war shall only be required to do supervisory work. Those not so required may ask for other suitable work which shall, so far as possible, be found for them.

If officers or persons of equivalent status ask for suitable work, it shall be found for them, so far as possible, but they may in no circumstances be compelled to work.

Article 50.

Besides work connected with camp administration, installation or maintenance, prisoners of war may be compelled to do only such work as is included in the following classes:

agriculture;

industries connected with the production or the extraction of raw materials, and manufacturing industries, with the exception of metallurgical, machinery and chemical industries; public works and building operations which have no military character or purpose;

transport and handling of stores which are not military in character or purpose;

commercial business, and arts and crafts;

domestic service;

public utility services having no military character or purpose.

Should the above provisions be infringed, prisoners of war shall be allowed to exercise their right of complaint, in conformity with Article 78.

Article 51.

Prisoners of war must be granted suitable working conditions, especially as regards accommodation, food, clothing and equipment; such conditions shall not be inferior to those enjoyed by nationals of the Detaining Power employed in similar work; account shall also be taken of climatic conditions.

The Detaining Power, in utilizing the labour of prisoners of war, shall ensure that in areas in which such prisoners are employed, the national legislation concerning the protection of labour, and, more particularly, the regulations for the safety of workers, are duly applied.

Prisoners of war shall receive training and be provided with the means of protection suitable to the work they will have to do and similar to those accorded to the nationals of the Detaining Power. Subject to the provisions of Article 52, prisoners may be submitted to the normal risks run by these civilian workers.

Conditions of labour shall in no case be rendered more arduous by disciplinary measures.

Article 52.

Unless he be a volunteer, no prisoner of war may be employed on labour which is of an unhealthy or dangerous nature.

No prisoner of war shall be assigned to labour which would be looked upon as humiliating for a member of the Detaining Power's own forces.

The removal of mines or similar devices shall be considered as dangerous labour.

Article 53.

The duration of the daily labour of prisoners of war, including the time of the journey to and fro, shall not be excessive, and must in no case exceed that permitted for civilian workers in the district, who are nationals of the Detaining Power and employed on the same work.

Prisoners of war must be allowed, in the middle of the day's work, a rest of not less than one hour. This rest will be the same as that to which workers of the Detaining Power are entitled, if the latter is of longer duration. They shall be allowed in addition a rest of twenty-four consecutive hours every week, preferably on Sunday or the day of rest in their country of origin. Furthermore, every prisoner who has worked for one year shall be granted a rest of eight consecutive days, during which his working pay shall be paid him.

If methods of labour such as piece work are employed, the length of the working period shall not be rendered excessive thereby.

Article 54.

The working pay due to prisoners of war shall be fixed in accordance with the provisions of Article 62 of the present Convention.

Prisoners of war who sustain accidents in connection with work, or who contract a disease in the course, or in consequence of their work, shall receive all the care their condition may require. The Detaining Power shall furthermore deliver to such prisoners of war a medical certificate enabling them to submit their claims to the Power on which they depend, and shall send a duplicate to the Central Prisoners of War Agency provided for in Article 123.

Article 55.

The fitness of prisoners of war for work shall be periodically verified by medical examinations at least once a month. The examinations shall have particular regard to the nature of the work which prisoners of war are required to do.

If any prisoner of war considers himself incapable of working, he shall be permitted to appear before the medical authorities of his camp. Physicians or surgeons may recommend that the prisoners who are, in their opinion, unfit for work, be exempted therefrom.
Article 56.

The organization and administration of labour detachments shall be similar to those of prisoner of war camps.

Every labour detachment shall remain under the control of and administratively part of a prisoner of war camp. The military authorities and the commander of the said camp shall be responsible, under the direction of their government, for the observance of the provisions of the present Convention in labour detachments.

The camp commander shall keep an up-to-date record of the labour detachments dependent on his camp, and shall communicate it to the delegates of the Protecting Power, of the International Committee of the Red Cross, or of other agencies giving relief to prisoners of war, who may visit the camp.

Article 57.

The treatment of prisoners of war who work for private persons, even if the latter are responsible for guarding and protecting them, shall not be inferior to that which is provided for by the present Convention. The Detaining Power, the military authorities and the commander of the camp to which such prisoners belong shall be entirely responsible for the maintenance, care, treatment, and payment of the working pay of such prisoners of war.

Such prisoners of war shall have the right to remain in communication with the prisoners' representatives in the camps on which they depend.

Section IV. Financial Resources of Prisoners of War

Article 58.

Upon the outbreak of hostilities, and pending an arrangement on this matter with the Protecting Power, the Detaining Power may determine the maximum amount of money in cash or in any similar form, that prisoners may have in their possession. Any amount in excess, which was properly in their possession and which has been taken or withheld from them, shall be placed to their account, together with any monies deposited by them, and shall not be converted into any other currency without their consent.

If prisoners of war are permitted to purchase services or commodities outside the camp against payment in cash, such payments shall be made by the prisoner himself or by the camp administration who will charge them to the accounts of the prisoners concerned. The Detaining Power will establish the necessary rules in this respect.

Article 59.

Cash which was taken from prisoners of war, in accordance with Article 18, at the time of their capture, and which is in the currency of the Detaining Power, shall be placed to their separate accounts, in accordance with the provisions of Article 64 of the present Section.

The amounts, in the currency of the Detaining Power, due to the conversion of sums in other currencies that are taken from the prisoners of war at the same time, shall also be credited to their separate accounts.

Article 60.

The Detaining Power shall grant all prisoners of war a monthly advance of pay, the amount of which shall be fixed by conversion, into the currency of the said Power, of the following amounts:

Category I: Prisoners ranking below sergeants: eight Swiss francs.

Category II: Sergeants and other non-commissioned officers, or prisoners of equivalent rank: twelve Swiss francs.

Category III: Warrant officers and commissioned officers below the rank of major or prisoners of equivalent rank: fifty Swiss francs.

Category IV: Majors, lieutenant-colonels, colonels or prisoners of equivalent rank: sixty Swiss francs.

Category V: General officers or prisoners of war of equivalent rank: seventy-five Swiss francs.

However, the Parties to the conflict concerned may by special agreement modify the amount of advances of pay due to prisoners of the preceding categories.

Furthermore, if the amounts indicated in the first paragraph above would be unduly high compared with the pay of the Detaining Power's armed forces or would, for any reason, seriously embarrass the Detaining Power, then, pending the conclusion of a special agreement with the Power on which the prisoners depend to vary the amounts indicated above, the Detaining Power:

shall continue to credit the accounts of the prisoners with the amounts indicated in the first paragraph above;

may temporarily limit the amount made available from these advances of pay to prisoners of war for their own use, to sums which are reasonable, but which, for Category I, shall never be inferior to the amount that the Detaining Power gives to the members of its own armed forces.

The reasons for any limitations will be given without delay to the Protecting Power.

Article 61.

The Detaining Power shall accept for distribution as supplementary pay to prisoners of war sums which the Power on which the prisoners depend may forward to them, on condition that the sums to be paid shall be the same for each prisoner of the same category, shall be payable to all prisoners of that category depending on that Power, and shall be placed in their separate accounts, at the earliest opportunity, in accordance with the provisions of Article 64. Such supplementary pay shall not relieve the Detaining Power of any obligation under this Convention.

Article 62.

Prisoners of war shall be paid a fair working rate of pay by the detaining authorities direct. The rate shall be fixed by the said authorities, but shall at no time be less than one-fourth of one Swiss franc for a full working day. The Detaining Power shall inform prisoners of war, as well as the Power on which they depend, through the intermediary of the Protecting Power, of the rate of daily working pay that it has fixed.

Working pay shall likewise be paid by the detaining authorities to prisoners of war permanently detailed to duties or to a skilled or semi-skilled occupation in connection with the administration, installation or maintenance of camps, and to the prisoners who are required to carry out spiritual or medical duties on behalf of their comrades.

The working pay of the prisoners' representative, of his advisers, if any, and of his assistants, shall be paid out of the fund maintained by canteen profits. The scale of this working pay shall be fixed by the prisoners' representative and approved by the camp commander. If there is no such fund, the detaining authorities shall pay these prisoners a fair working rate of pay.

Article 63

Prisoners of war shall be permitted to receive remittances of money addressed to them individually or collectively.

Every prisoner of war shall have at his disposal the credit balance of his account as provided for in the following Article, within the limits fixed by the Detaining Power, which shall make such payments as are requested. Subject to financial or monetary restrictions which the Detaining Power regards as essential, prisoners of war may also have payments made abroad. In this case payments addressed by prisoners of war to dependents shall be given priority.

In any event, and subject to the consent of the Power on which they depend, prisoners may have payments made in their own country, as follows: the Detaining Power shall send to the aforesaid Power through the Protecting Power, a notification giving all the necessary particulars concerning the prisoners of war, the beneficiaries of the payments, and the amount of the sums to be paid, expressed in the Detaining Power's currency. The said notification shall be signed by the prisoners and countersigned by the camp commander. The Detaining Power shall debit the prisoners' account by a corresponding amount; the sums thus debited shall be placed by it to the credit of the Power on which the prisoners depend.

To apply the foregoing provisions, the Detaining Power may usefully consult the Model Regulations in Annex V of the present Convention.

Article 64.

The Detaining Power shall hold an account for each prisoner of war, showing at least the following:

The amounts due to the prisoner or received by him as advances of pay, as working pay or derived from any other source; the sums in the currency of the Detaining Power which were taken from him; the sums taken from him and converted at his request into the currency of the said Power.

The payments made to the prisoner in cash, or in any other similar form; the payments made on his behalf and at his request; the sums transferred under Article 63, third paragraph.

Article 65.

Every item entered in the account of a prisoner of war shall be countersigned or initialled by him, or by the prisoners' representative acting on his behalf.

Prisoners of war shall at all times be afforded reasonable facilities for consulting and obtaining copies of their accounts, which may likewise be inspected by the representatives of the Protecting Powers at the time of visits to the camp.

When prisoners of war are transferred from one camp to another, their personal accounts will follow them. In case of transfer from one Detaining Power to another, the monies which are their property and are not in the currency of the Detaining Power will follow them. They shall be given certificates for any other monies standing to the credit of their accounts.

The Parties to the conflict concerned may agree to notify to each other at specific intervals through the Protecting Power, the amount of the accounts of the prisoners of war.

Article 66.

On the termination of captivity, through the release of a prisoner of war or his repatriation, the Detaining Power shall give him a statement, signed by an authorized officer of that Power, showing the credit balance then due to him. The Detaining Power shall also send through the Protecting Power to the government upon which the prisoner of war depends, lists giving all appropriate particulars of all prisoners of war whose captivity has been terminated by repatriation, release, escape, death or any other means, and showing the amount of their credit balances. Such lists shall be certified on each sheet by an authorized representative of the Detaining Power.

Any of the above provisions of this Article may be varied by mutual agreement between any two Parties to the conflict.

The Power on which the prisoner of war depends shall be responsible for settling with him any credit balance due to him from the Detaining Power on the termination of his captivity.

Article 67.

Advances of pay, issued to prisoners of war in conformity with Article 60, shall be considered as made on behalf of the Power on which they depend. Such advances of pay, as well as all payments made by the said Power under Article 63, third paragraph, and Article 68, shall form the subject of arrangements between the Powers concerned, at the close of hostilities.

Article 68.

Any claim by a prisoner of war for compensation in respect of any injury or other disability arising out of work shall be referred to the Power on which he depends, through the Protecting Power. In accordance with Article 54, the Detaining Power will, in all cases, provide the prisoner of war concerned with a statement showing the nature of the injury or disability, the circumstances in which it arose and particulars of medical or hospital treatment given for it. This statement will be signed by a responsible officer of the Detaining Power and the medical particulars certified by a medical officer.

Any claim by a prisoner of war for compensation in respect of personal effects monies or valuables impounded by the Detaining Power under Article 18 and not forthcoming on his repatriation, or in respect of loss alleged to be due to the fault of the Detaining Power or any of its servants, shall likewise be referred to the Power on which he depends. Nevertheless, any such personal effects required for use by the prisoners of war whilst in captivity shall be replaced at the expense of the Detaining Power. The Detaining Power will, in all cases, provide the prisoner of war with a statement, signed by a responsible officer, showing all available information regarding the reasons why such effects, monies or valuables have not been restored to him. A copy of this statement will be forwarded to the Power on which he depends through the Central Prisoners of War Agency provided for in Article 123.

Section V. Relations of Prisoners of War With the Exterior

Article 69.

Immediately upon prisoners of war falling into its power, the Detaining Power shall inform them and the Powers on which they depend, through the Protecting Power, of the measures taken to carry out the provisions of the present Section. They shall likewise inform the parties concerned of any subsequent modifications of such measures.

Article 70.

Immediately upon capture, or not more than one week after arrival at a camp, even if it is a transit camp, likewise in case of sickness or transfer to hospital or to another camp, every prisoner of war shall be enabled to write direct to his family, on the one hand, and to the Central Prisoners of War Agency provided for in Article 123, on the other hand, a card similar, if possible, to the model annexed to the present Convention, informing his relatives of his capture, address and state of health. The said cards shall be forwarded as rapidly as possible and may not be delayed in any manner.

Article 71.

Prisoners of war shall be allowed to send and receive letters and cards. If the Detaining Power deems it necessary to limit the number of letters and cards sent by each prisoner of war, the said number shall not be less than two letters and four cards monthly, exclusive of the capture cards provided for in Article 70, and conforming as closely as possible to the models annexed to the present Convention. Further limitations may be imposed only if the Protecting Power is satisfied that it would be in the interests of the prisoners of war concerned to do so owing to difficulties of translation caused by the Detaining Power's inability to find sufficient qualified linguists to carry out the necessary censorship. If limitations must be placed on the correspondence addressed to prisoners of war, they may be ordered only by the Power on which the prisoners depend, possibly at the request of the Detaining Power. Such letters and cards must be conveyed by the most rapid method at the disposal of the Detaining Power; they may not be delayed or retained for disciplinary reasons.

Prisoners of war who have been without news for a long period, or who are unable to receive news from their next of kin or to give them news by the ordinary postal route, as well as those who are at a great distance from their homes, shall be permitted to send telegrams, the fees being charged against the prisoners of war's accounts with the Detaining Power or paid in the currency at their disposal. They shall likewise benefit by this measure in cases of urgency.

As a general rule, the correspondence of prisoners of war shall be written in their native language. The Parties to the conflict may allow correspondence in other languages.

Sacks containing prisoner of war mail must be securely sealed and labelled so as clearly to indicate their contents, and must be addressed to offices of destination.

Article 72.

Prisoners of war shall be allowed to receive by post or by any other means individual parcels or collective shipments containing, in particular, foodstuffs, clothing, medical supplies and articles of a religious, educational or recreational character which may meet their needs, including books, devotional articles, scientific equipment, examination papers, musical instruments, sports outfits and materials allowing prisoners of war to pursue their studies or their cultural activities.

Such shipments shall in no way free the Detaining Power from the obligations imposed upon it by virtue of the present Convention.

The only limits which may be placed on these shipments shall be those proposed by the Protecting Power in the interest of the prisoners themselves, or by the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other organization giving assistance to the prisoners, in respect of their own shipments only, on account of exceptional strain on transport or communications.

The conditions for the sending of individual parcels and collective relief shall, if necessary, be the subject of special agreements between the Powers concerned, which may in no case delay the receipt by the prisoners of relief supplies. Books may not be included in parcels of clothing and foodstuffs. Medical supplies shall, as a rule, be sent in collective parcels.

Article 73.

In the absence of special agreements between the Powers concerned on the conditions for the receipt and distribution of collective relief shipments, the rules and regulations concerning collective shipments, which are annexed to the present Convention, shall be applied.

The special agreements referred to above shall in no case restrict the right of prisoners' representatives to take possession of collective relief shipments intended for prisoners of war, to proceed to their distribution or to dispose of them in the interest of the prisoners.

Nor shall such agreements restrict the right of representatives of the Protecting Power, the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other organization giving assistance to prisoners of war and responsible for the forwarding of collective shipments, to supervise their distribution to the recipients.

Article 74.

All relief shipments for prisoners of war shall be exempt from import, customs and other dues.

Correspondence, relief shipments and authorized remittances of money addressed to prisoners of war or despatched by them through the post office, either direct or through the Information Bureaux provided for in Article 122 and the Central Prisoners of War Agency provided for in Article 123, shall be exempt from any postal dues, both in the countries of origin and destination, and in intermediate countries.

If relief shipments intended for prisoners of war cannot be sent through the post office by reason of weight or for any other cause, the cost of transportation shall be borne by the Detaining Power in all the territories under its control. The other Powers party to the Convention shall bear the cost of transport in their respective territories. In the absence of special agreements between the Parties concerned, the costs connected with transport of such shipments, other than costs covered by the above exemption, shall be charged to the senders.

The High Contracting Parties shall endeavour to reduce, so far as possible, the rates charged for telegrams sent by prisoners of war, or addressed to them.

Article 75.

Should military operations prevent the Powers concerned from fulfilling their obligation to assure the transport of the shipments referred to in Articles 70, 71, 72 and 77, the Protecting Powers concerned, the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other organization duly approved by the Parties to the conflict may undertake to ensure the conveyance of such shipments by suitable means (railway wagons, motor vehicles, vessels or aircraft, etc.). For this purpose, the High Contracting Parties shall endeavour to supply them with such transport and to allow its circulation, especially by granting the necessary safe-conducts.

Such transport may also be used to convey:

correspondence, lists and reports exchanged between the Central Information Agency referred to in Article 123 and the National Bureaux referred to in Article 122;

correspondence and reports relating to prisoners of war which the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other body assisting the prisoners, exchange either with their own delegates or with the Parties to the conflict.

These provisions in no way detract from the right of any Party to the conflict to arrange other means of transport, if it should so prefer, nor preclude the granting of safe-conducts, under mutually agreed conditions, to such means of transport.

In the absence of special agreements, the costs occasioned by the use of such means of transport shall be borne proportionally by the Parties to the conflict whose nationals are benefited thereby.

Article 76.

The censoring of correspondence addressed to prisoners of war or despatched by them shall be done as quickly as possible. Mail shall be censored only by the despatching State and the receiving State, and once only by each.

The examination of consignments intended for prisoners of war shall not be carried out under conditions that will expose the goods contained in them to deterioration; except in the case of written or printed matter, it shall be done in the presence of the addressee, or of a fellow-prisoner duly delegated by him. The delivery to prisoners of individual or collective consignments shall not be delayed under the pretext of difficulties of censorship.

Any prohibition of correspondence ordered by Parties to the conflict, either for military or political reasons, shall be only temporary and its duration shall be as short as possible.

Article 77.

The Detaining Powers shall provide all facilities for the transmission, through the Protecting Power or the Central Prisoners of War Agency provided for in Article 123 of instruments, papers or documents intended for prisoners of war or despatched by them, especially powers of attorney and wills.

In all cases they shall facilitate the preparation and execution of such documents on behalf of prisoners of war; in particular, they shall allow them to consult a lawyer and shall take what measures are necessary for the authentication of their signatures.

Section VI. Relations Between Prisoners of War and the Authorities

Chapter I. Complaints of Prisoners of War Respecting the Conditions of Captivity

Article 78.

Prisoners of war shall have the right to make known to the military authorities in whose power they are, their requests regarding the conditions of captivity to which they are subjected.

They shall also have the unrestricted right to apply to the representatives of the Protecting Powers either through their prisoners' representative or, if they consider it necessary, direct, in order to draw their attention to any points on which they may have complaints to make regarding their conditions of captivity.

These requests and complaints shall not be limited nor considered to be a part of the correspondence quota referred to in Article 71. They must be transmitted immediately. Even if they are recognized to be unfounded, they may not give rise to any punishment.

Prisoners' representatives may send periodic reports on the situation in the camps and the needs of the prisoners of war to the representatives of the Protecting Powers.

Chapter II. Prisoner of War Representatives

Article 79.

In all places where there are prisoners of war, except in those where there are officers, the prisoners shall freely elect by secret ballot, every six months, and also in case of vacancies, prisoners' representatives entrusted with representing them before the military authorities, the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross and any other organization which may assist them. These prisoners' representatives shall be eligible for re-election.

In camps for officers and persons of equivalent status or in mixed camps, the senior officer among the prisoners of war shall be recognized as the camp prisoners' representative. In camps for officers, he shall be assisted by one or more advisers chosen by the officers; in mixed camps, his assistants shall be chosen from among the prisoners of war who are not officers and shall be elected by them.

Officer prisoners of war of the same nationality shall be stationed in labour camps for prisoners of war, for the purpose of carrying out the camp administration duties for which the prisoners of war are responsible. These officers may be elected as prisoners' representatives under the first paragraph of this Article. In such a case the assistants to the prisoners' representatives shall be chosen from among those prisoners of war who are not officers.

Every representative elected must be approved by the Detaining Power before he has the right to commence his duties. Where the Detaining Power refuses to approve a prisoner of war elected by his fellow prisoners of war, it must inform the Protecting Power of the reason for such refusal.

In all cases the prisoners' representative must have the same nationality, language and customs as the prisoners of war whom he represents. Thus, prisoners of war distributed in different sections of a camp, according to their nationality, language or customs, shall have for each section their own prisoners' representative, in accordance with the foregoing paragraphs.

Article 80.

Prisoners' representatives shall further the physical, spiritual and intellectual well-being of prisoners of war.

In particular, where the prisoners decide to organize amongst themselves a system of mutual assistance, this organization will be within the province of the prisoners' representative, in addition to the special duties entrusted to him by other provisions of the present Convention.

Prisoners' representatives shall not be held responsible, simply by reason of their duties, for any offences committed by prisoners of war.

Article 81.

Prisoners' representatives shall not be required to perform any other work, if the accomplishment of their duties is thereby made more difficult.

Prisoners' representatives may appoint from amongst the prisoners such assistants as they may require. All material facilities shall be granted them, particularly a certain freedom of movement necessary for the accomplishment of their duties (inspection of labour detachments, receipt of supplies, etc.).

Prisoners' representatives shall be permitted to visit premises where prisoners of war are detained, and every prisoner of war shall have the right to consult freely his prisoners' representative.

All facilities shall likewise be accorded to the prisoners' representatives for communication by post and telegraph with the detaining authorities, the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross and their delegates, the Mixed Medical Commissions and the bodies which give assistance to prisoners of war. Prisoners' representatives of labour detachments shall enjoy the same facilities for communication with the prisoners' representatives of the principal camp. Such communications shall not be restricted, nor considered as forming a part of the quota mentioned in Article 71.

Prisoners' representatives who are transferred shall be allowed a reasonable time to acquaint their successors with current affairs.

In case of dismissal, the reasons therefor shall be communicated to the Protecting Power.

Chapter III. Penal and Disciplinary Sanctions

I. General Provisions

Article 82.

A prisoner of war shall be subject to the laws, regulations and orders in force in the armed forces of the Detaining Power; the Detaining Power shall be justified in taking judicial or disciplinary measures in respect of any offence committed by a prisoner of war against such laws, regulations or orders. However, no proceedings or punishments contrary to the provisions of this Chapter shall be allowed.

If any law, regulation or order of the Detaining Power shall declare acts committed by a prisoner of war to be punishable, whereas the same acts would not be punishable if committed by a member of the forces of the Detaining Power, such acts shall entail disciplinary punishments only.

Article 83.

In deciding whether proceedings in respect of an offence alleged to have been committed by a prisoner of war shall be judicial or disciplinary, the Detaining Power shall ensure that the competent authorities exercise the greatest leniency and adopt, wherever possible, disciplinary rather than judicial measures.

Article 84.

A prisoner of war shall be tried only by a military court, unless the existing laws of the Detaining Power expressly permit the civil courts to try a member of the armed forces of the Detaining Power in respect of the particular offence alleged to have been committed by the prisoner of war.

In no circumstances whatever shall a prisoner of war be tried by a court of any kind which does not offer the essential guarantees of independence and impartiality as generally recognized, and, in particular, the procedure of which does not afford the accused the rights and means of defence provided for in Article 105.

Article 85.

Prisoners of war prosecuted under the laws of the Detaining Power for acts committed prior to capture shall retain, even if convicted, the benefits of the present Convention.

Article 86.

No prisoner of war may be punished more than once for the same act or on the same charge.

Article 87.

Prisoners of war may not be sentenced by the military authorities and courts of the Detaining Power to any penalties except those provided for in respect of members of the armed forces of the said Power who have committed the same acts.

When fixing the penalty, the courts or authorities of the Detaining Power shall take into consideration, to the widest extent possible, the fact that the accused, not being a national of the Detaining Power, is not bound to it by any duty of allegiance, and that he is in its power as the result of circumstances independent of his own will. The said courts or authorities shall be at liberty to reduce the penalty provided for the violation of which the prisoner of war is accused, and shall therefore not be bound to apply the minimum penalty prescribed.

Collective punishment for individual acts, corporal punishment, imprisonment in premises without daylight and, in general, any form of torture or cruelty, are forbidden.

No prisoner of war may be deprived of his rank by the Detaining Power, or prevented from wearing his badges.

Article 88.

Officers, non-commissioned officers and men who are prisoners of war undergoing a disciplinary or judicial punishment, shall not be subjected to more severe treatment than that applied in respect of the same punishment to members of the armed forces of the Detaining Power of equivalent rank.

A woman prisoner of war shall not be awarded or sentenced to a punishment more severe, or treated whilst undergoing punishment more severely, than a woman member of the armed forces of the Detaining Power dealt with for a similar offence.

In no case may a woman prisoner of war be awarded or sentenced to a punishment more severe, or treated whilst undergoing punishment more severely, than a male member of the armed forces of the Detaining Power dealt with for a similar offence.

Prisoners of war who have served disciplinary or judicial sentences may not be treated differently from other prisoners of war.

II. Disciplinary Sanctions

Article 89.

The disciplinary punishments applicable to prisoners of war are the following:

A fine which shall not exceed 50 per cent of the advances of pay and working pay which the prisoner of war would otherwise receive under the provisions of Articles 60 and 62 during a period of not more than thirty days.

Discontinuance of privileges granted over and above the treatment provided for by the present Convention.

Fatigue duties not exceeding two hours daily.

Confinement.

The officers.

In no case shall disciplinary punishments be inhuman, brutal or dangerous to the health of prisoners of war.

Article 90.

The duration of any single punishment shall in no case exceed thirty days. Any period of confinement awaiting the hearing of a disciplinary offence or the award of disciplinary punishment shall be deducted from an award pronounced against a prisoner of war.

The maximum of thirty days provided above may not be exceeded, even if the prisoner of war is answerable for several acts at the same time when he is awarded punishment, whether such acts are related or not.

The period between the pronouncing of an award of disciplinary punishment and its execution shall not exceed one month.

When a prisoner of war is awarded a further disciplinary punishment, a period of at least three days shall elapse between the execution of any two of the punishments, if the duration of one of these is ten days or more.

Article 91.

The escape of a prisoner of war shall be deemed to have succeeded when:

he has joined the armed forces of the Power on which he depends, or those of an allied Power;

he has left the territory under the control of the Detaining Power, or of an ally of the said Power;

he has joined a ship flying the flag of the Power on which he depends, or of an allied Power, in the territorial waters of the Detaining Power, the said ship not being under the control of the last named Power.

Prisoners of war who have made good their escape in the sense of this Article and who are recaptured, shall not be liable to any punishment in respect of their previous escape.

Article 92.

A prisoner of war who attempts to escape and is recaptured before having made good his escape in the sense of Article 91 shall be liable only to a disciplinary punishment in respect of this act, even if it is a repeated offence.

A prisoner of war who is recaptured shall be handed over without delay to the competent military authority.

Article 88, fourth paragraph, notwithstanding, prisoners of war punished as a result of an unsuccessful escape may be subjected to special surveillance. Such surveillance must not affect the state of their health, must be undergone in a prisoner of war camp, and must not entail the suppression of any of the safeguards granted them by the present Convention.

Article 93.

Escape or attempt to escape, even if it is a repeated offence, shall not be deemed an aggravating circumstance if the prisoner of war is subjected to trial by judicial proceedings in respect of an offence committed during his escape or attempt to escape.

In conformity with the principle stated in Article 83, offences committed by prisoners of war with the sole intention of facilitating their escape and which do not entail any violence against life or limb, such as offences against public property, theft without intention of self-enrichment, the drawing up or use of false papers, or the wearing of civilian clothing, shall occasion disciplinary punishment only.

Prisoners of war who aid or abet an escape or an attempt to escape shall be liable on this count to disciplinary punishment only.

Article 94.

If an escaped prisoner of war is recaptured, the Power on which he depends shall be notified thereof in the manner defined in Article 122, provided notification of his escape has been made.

Article 95.

A prisoner of war accused of an offence against discipline shall not be kept in confinement pending the hearing unless a member of the armed forces of the Detaining Power would be so kept if he were accused of a similar offence, or if it is essential in the interests of camp order and discipline.

Any period spent by a prisoner of war in confinement awaiting the disposal of an offence against discipline shall be reduced to an absolute minimum and shall not exceed fourteen days.

The provisions of Articles 97 and 98 of this Chapter shall apply to prisoners of war who are in confinement awaiting the disposal of offences against discipline.

Article 96.

Acts which constitute offences against discipline shall be investigated immediately.

Without prejudice to the competence of courts and superior military authorities, disciplinary punishment may be ordered only by an officer having disciplinary powers in his capacity as camp commander, or by a responsible officer who replaces him or to whom he has delegated his disciplinary powers.

In no case may such powers be delegated to a prisoner of war or be exercised by a prisoner of war.

Before any disciplinary award is pronounced, the accused shall be given precise information regarding the offences of which he is accused, and given an opportunity of explaining his conduct and of defending himself. He shall be permitted, in particular, to call witnesses and to have recourse, if necessary, to the services of a qualified interpreter. The decision shall be announced to the accused prisoner of war and to the prisoners' representative.

A record of disciplinary punishments shall be maintained by the camp commander and shall be open to inspection by representatives of the Protecting Power.

Article 97.

Prisoners of war shall not in any case be transferred to penitentiary establishments (prisons, penitentiaries, convict prisons, etc.) to undergo disciplinary punishment therein.

All premises in which disciplinary punishments are undergone shall conform to the sanitary requirements set forth in Article 25. A prisoner of war undergoing punishment shall be enabled to keep himself in a state of cleanliness, in conformity with Article 29.

Officers and persons of equivalent status shall not be lodged in the same quarters as non-commissioned officers or men.

Women prisoners of war undergoing disciplinary punishment shall be confined in separate quarters from male prisoners of war and shall be under the immediate supervision of women.

Article 98.

A prisoner of war undergoing confinement as a disciplinary punishment, shall continue to enjoy the benefits of.the provisions of this Convention except in so far as these are necessarily rendered inapplicable by the mere fact that he is confined. In no case may he be deprived of the benefits of the provisions of Articles 78 and 126.

A prisoner of war awarded disciplinary punishment may not be deprived of the prerogatives attached to his rank.

Prisoners of war awarded disciplinary punishment shall be allowed to exercise and to stay in the open air at least two hours daily.

They shall be allowed, on their request, to be present at the daily medical inspections. They shall receive the attention which their state of health requires and, if necessary, shall be removed to the camp infirmary or to a hospital.

They shall have permission to read and write, likewise to send and receive letters. Parcels and remittances of money however, may be withheld from them until the completion of the punishment; they shall meanwhile be entrusted to the prisoners' representative, who-will hand over to the infirmary the perishable goods contained in such parcels.

III. Juridicial Proceedings

Article 99.

No prisoner of war may be tried or sentenced for an act which is not forbidden by the law of the Detaining Power or by international law, in force at the time the said act was committed.

No moral or physical coercion may be exerted on a prisoner of war in order to induce him to admit himself guilty of the act of which he is accused.

No prisoner of war may be convicted without having had an opportunity to present his defence and the assistance of a qualified advocate or counsel.

Article 100.

Prisoners of war and the Protecting Powers shall be informed as soon as possible of the offences which are punishable by the death sentence under the laws of the Detaining Power.

Other offences shall not thereafter be made punishable by the death penalty without the concurrence of the Power on which the prisoners of war depend.

The death sentence cannot be pronounced on a prisoner of war unless the attention of the court has, in accordance with Article 87, second paragraph, been particularly called to the fact that since the accused is not a national of the Detaining Power, he is not bound to it by any duty of allegiance, and that he is in its power as the result of circumstances independent of his own will.

Article 101.

If the death penalty is pronounced on a prisoner of war, the sentence shall not be executed before the expiration of a period of at least six months from the date when the Protecting Power receives, at an indicated address, the detailed communication provided for in Article 107.

Article 102.

A prisoner of war can be validly sentenced only if the sentence has been pronounced by the same courts according to the same procedure as in the case of members of the armed forces of the Detaining Power, and if, furthermore, the provisions of the present Chapter have been observed.

Article 103.

Judicial investigations relating to a prisoner of war shall be conducted as rapidly as circumstances permit and so that his trial shall take place as soon as possible. A prisoner of war shall not be confined while awaiting trial unless a member of the armed forces of the Detaining Power would be so confined if he were accused of a similar offence, or if it is essential to do so in the interests of national security. In no circumstances shall this confinement exceed three months.

Any period spent by a prisoner of war in confinement awaiting trial shall be deducted from any sentence of imprisonment passed upon him and taken into account in fixing any penalty.

The provisions of Articles 97 and 98 of this Chapter shall apply to a prisoner of war whilst in confinement awaiting trial.

Article 104.

In any case in which the Detaining Power has decided to institute judicial proceedings against a prisoner of war, it shall notify the Protecting Power as soon as possible and at least three weeks before the opening of the trial. This period of three weeks shall run as from the day on which such notification reaches the Protecting Power at the address previously indicated by the latter to the Detaining Power.

The said notification shall contain the following information:

Surname and first names of the prisoner of war, his rank, his army, regimental, personal or serial number, his date of birth, and his profession or trade, if any;

Place of internment or confinement;

Specification of the charge or charges on which the prisoner of war is to be arraigned, giving the legal provisions applicable;

Designation of the court which will try the case, likewise the date and place fixed for the opening of the trial. The same communication shall be made by the Detaining Power to the prisoners' representative.

If no evidence is submitted, at the opening of a trial, that the notification referred to above was received by the Protecting Power, by the prisoner of war and by the prisoners' representative concerned, at least three weeks before the opening of the trial, then the latter cannot take place and must be adjourned.

Article 105.

The prisoner of war shall be entitled to assistance by one of his prisoner comrades, to defence by a qualified advocate or counsel of his own choice, to the calling of witnesses and, if he deems necessary, to the services of a competent interpreter. He shall be advised of these rights by the Detaining Power in due time before the trial.

Failing a choice by the prisoner of war, the Protecting Power shall find him an advocate or counsel, and shall have at least one week at its disposal for the purpose. The Detaining Power shall deliver to the said Power, on request, a list of persons qualified to present the defence. Failing a choice of an advocate or counsel by the prisoner of war or the Protecting Power, the Detaining Power shall appoint a competent advocate or counsel to conduct the defence.

The advocate or counsel conducting the defence on behalf of the prisoner of war shall have at his disposal a period of two weeks at least before the opening of the trial, as well as the necessary facilities to prepare the defence of the accused. He may, in particular, freely visit the accused and interview him in private. He may also confer with any witnesses for the defence, including prisoners of war. He shall have the benefit of these facilities until the term of appeal or petition has expired.

Particulars of the charge or charges on which the prisoner of war is to be arraigned, as well as the documents which are generally communicated to the accused by virtue of the laws in force in the armed forces of the Detaining Power, shall be communicated to the accused prisoner of war in a language which he understands, and in good time before the opening of the trial. The same communication in the same circumstances shall be made to the advocate or counsel conducting the defence on behalf of the prisoner of war.

The representatives of the Protecting Power shall be entitled to attend the trial of the case, unless, exceptionally, this is held in camera in the interest of State security. In such a case the Detaining Power shall advise the Protecting Power accordingly.

Article 106.

Every prisoner of war shall have, in the same manner as the members of the armed forces of the Detaining Power, the right of appeal or petition from any sentence pronounced upon him, with a view to the quashing or revising of the sentence or the reopening of the trial. He shall be fully informed of his right to appeal or petition and of the time limit within which he may do so.

Article 107.

Any judgment and sentence pronounced upon a prisoner of war shall be immediately reported to the Protecting Power in the form of a summary communication, which shall also indicate whether he has the right of appeal with a view to the quashing of the sentence or the reopening of the trial. This communication shall likewise be sent to the prisoners' representative concerned. It shall also be sent to the accused prisoner of war in a language he understands, if the sentence was not pronounced in his presence. The Detaining Power shall also immediately communicate to the Protecting Power the decision of the prisoner of war to use or to waive his right of appeal.

Furthermore, if a prisoner of war is finally convicted or if a sentence pronounced on a prisoner of war in the first instance is a death sentence, the Detaining Power shall as soon as possible address to the Protecting Power a detailed communication containing:

the precise wording of the finding and sentence;

a summarized report of any preliminary investigation and of the trial, emphasizing in particular the elements of the prosecution and the defence;

notification, where applicable, of the establishment where the sentence will be served.

The communications provided for in the foregoing sub-paragraphs shall be sent to the Protecting Power at the address previously made known to the Detaining Power.

Article 108.

Sentences pronounced on prisoners of war after a conviction has become duly enforceable, shall be served in the same establishments and under the same conditions as in the case of members of the armed forces of the Detaining Power. These conditions shall in all cases conform to the requirements of health and humanity.

A woman prisoner of war on whom such a sentence has been pronounced shall be confined in separate quarters and shall be under the supervision of women.

In any case, prisoners of war sentenced to a penalty depriving them of their liberty shall retain the benefit of the provisions of Articles 78 and 126 of the present Convention. Furthermore, they shall be entitled to receive and despatch correspondence, to receive at least one relief parcel monthly, to take regular exercise in the open air, to have the medical care required by their state of health, and the spiritual assistance they may desire. Penalties to which they may be subjected shall be in accordance with the provisions of Article 87, third paragraph.

Part IV. Termination of Captivity

Section I. Direct Repatriation and Accommodation in Neutral Countries

Article 109.

Subject to the provisions of the third paragraph of this Article, Parties to the conflict are bound to send back to their own country, regardless of number or rank, seriously wounded and seriously sick prisoners of war, after having cared for them until they are fit to travel, in accordance with the first paragraph of the following Article.

Throughout the duration of hostilities, Parties to the conflict shall endeavour, with the cooperation of the neutral Powers concerned, to make arrangements for the accommodation in neutral countries of the sick and wounded prisoners of war referred to in the second paragraph of the following Article. They may, in addition, conclude agreements with a view to the direct repatriation or internment in a neutral country of able-bodied prisoners of war who have undergone a long period of captivity.

No sick or injured prisoner of war who is eligible for repatriation under the first paragraph of this Article, may be repatriated against his will during hostilities.

Article 110.

The following shall be repatriated direct:

Incurably wounded and sick whose mental or physical fitness seems to have been gravely diminished.

Wounded and sick who, according to medical opinion, are not likely to recover within one year, whose condition requires treatment and whose mental or physical fitness seems to have been gravely diminished.

Wounded and sick who have recovered, but whose mental or physical fitness seems to have been gravely and permanently diminished.

The following may be accommodated in a neutral country:

Wounded and sick whose recovery may be expected within one year of the date of the wound or the beginning of the illness, if treatment in a neutral country might increase the prospects of a more certain and speedy recovery.

Prisoners of war whose mental or physical health, according to medical opinion, is seriously threatened by continued captivity, but whose accommodation in a neutral country might remove such a threat.

The conditions which prisoners of war accommodated in a neutral country must fulfil in order to permit their repatriation shall be fixed, as shall likewise their status, by agreement between the Powers concerned. In general, prisoners of war who have been accommodated in a neutral country, and who belong to the following categories, should be repatriated:

Those whose state of health has deteriorated so as to fulfil the condition laid down for direct repatriation;

Those whose mental or physical powers remain, even after treatment, considerably impaired.

If no special agreements are concluded between the Parties to the conflict concerned, to determine the cases of disablement or sickness entailing direct repatriation or accommodation in a neutral country, such cases shall be settled in accordance with the principles laid down in the Model Agreement concerning direct repatriation and accommodation in neutral countries of wounded and sick prisoners of war and in the Regulations concerning Mixed Medical Commissions annexed to the present Convention.

Article 111.

The Detaining Power, the Power on which the prisoners of war depend, and a neutral Power agreed upon by these two Powers, shall endeavour to conclude agreements which will enable prisoners of war to be interned in the territory of the said neutral Power until the close of hostilities.

Article 112.

Upon the outbreak of hostilities, Mixed Medical Commissions shall be appointed to examine sick and wounded prisoners of war, and to make all appropriate decisions regarding them. The appointment, duties and functioning of these Commissions shall be in conformity with the provisions of the Regulations annexed to the present Convention.

However, prisoners of war who, in the opinion of the medical authorities of the Detaining Power, are manifestly seriously injured or seriously sick, may be repatriated without having to be examined by a Mixed Medical Commission.

Article 113.

Besides those who are designated by the medical authorities of the Detaining Power, wounded or sick prisoners of war belonging to the categories listed below shall be entitled to present themselves for examination by the Mixed Medical Commissions provided for in the foregoing Article:

Wounded and sick proposed by a physician or surgeon who is of the same nationality, or a national of a Party to the conflict allied with the Power on which the said prisoners depend, and who exercises his functions in the camp.

Wounded and sick proposed by their prisoners' representative.

Wounded and sick proposed by the Power on which they depend, or by an organization duly recognized by the said Power and giving assistance to the prisoners.

Prisoners of war who do not belong to one of the three foregoing categories may nevertheless present themselves for examination by Mixed Medical Commissions, but shall be examined only after those belonging to the said categories.

The physician or surgeon of the same nationality as the prisoners who present themselves for examination by the Mixed Medical Commission, likewise the prisoners' representative of the said prisoners, shall have permission to be present at the examination.

Article 114.

Prisoners of war who meet with accidents shall, unless the injury is self-inflicted, have the benefit of the provisions of this Convention as regards repatriation or accommodation in a neutral country.

Article 115.

No prisoner of war on whom a disciplinary punishment has been imposed and who is eligible for repatriation or for accommodation in a neutral country, may be kept back on the plea that he has not undergone his punishment.

Prisoners of war detained in connection with a judicial prosecution or conviction, and who are designated for repatriation or accommodation in a neutral country, may benefit by such measures before the end of the proceedings or the completion of the punishment, if the Detaining Power consents.

Parties to the conflict shall communicate to each other the names of those who will be detained until the end of the proceedings or the completion of the punishment.

Article 116.

The cost of repatriating prisoners of war or of transporting them to a neutral country shall be borne, from the frontiers of the Detaining Power, by the Power on which the said prisoners depend.

Article 117.

No repatriated person may be employed on active military service.

Section II. Release and Repatriation of Prisoners of War at the Close of Hostilities

Article 118.

Prisoners of war shall be released and repatriated without delay after the cessation of active hostilities.

In the absence of stipulations to the above effect in any agreement concluded between the Parties to the conflict with a view to the cessation of hostilities, or failing any such agreement, each of the Detaining Powers shall itself establish and execute without delay a plan of repatriation in conformity with the principle laid down in the foregoing paragraph.

In either case, the measures adopted shall be brought to the knowledge of the prisoners of war.

The costs of repatriation of prisoners of war shall in all cases be equitably apportioned between the Detaining Power and the Power on which the prisoners depend. This apportionment shall be carried out on the following basis:

If the two Powers are contiguous, the Power on which the prisoners of war depend shall bear the costs of repatriation from the frontiers of the Detaining Power.

If the two Powers are not contiguous, the Detaining Power shall bear the costs of transport of prisoners of war over its own territory as far as its frontier or its port of embarkation nearest to the territory of the Power on which the prisoners of war depend. The Parties concerned shall agree between themselves as to the equitable apportionment of the remaining costs of the repatriation.

The conclusion of this agreement shall in no circumstances justify any delay in the repatriation of the prisoners of war.

Article 119.

Repatriation shall be effected in conditions similar to those laid down in Articles 46 to 48 inclusive of the present Convention for the transfer of prisoners of war, having regard to the provisions of Article 118 and to those of the following paragraphs.

On repatriation, any articles of value impounded from prisoners of war under Article 18, and any foreign currency which has not been converted into the currency of the Detaining Power, shall be restored to them. Articles of value and foreign currency which, for any reason whatever, are not restored to prisoners of war on repatriation, shall be despatched to the Information Bureau set up under Article 122.

Prisoners of war shall be allowed to take with them their personal effects, and any correspondence and parcels which have arrived for them. The weight of such baggage may be limited, if the conditions of repatriation so require, to what each prisoner can reasonably carry. Each prisoner shall in all cases be authorized to carry at least twenty-five kilograms.

The other personal effects of the repatriated prisoner shall be left in the charge of the Detaining Power which shall have them forwarded to him as soon as it has concluded an agreement to this effect, regulating the conditions of transport and the payment of the costs involved, with the Power on which the prisoner depends.

Prisoners of war against whom criminal proceedings for an indictable offence are pending may be detained until the end of such proceedings, and, if necessary, until the completion of the punishment. The same shall apply to prisoners of war already convicted for an indictable offence.

Parties to the conflict shall communicate to each other the names of any prisoners of war who are detained until the end of the proceedings or until punishment has been completed.

By agreement between the Parties to the conflict, commissions shall be established for the purpose of searching for dispersed prisoners of war and of assuring their repatriation with the least possible delay.

Section III. Death of Prisoners of War

Article 120.

Wills of prisoners of war shall be drawn up so as to satisfy the conditions of validity required by the legislation of their country of origin, which will take steps to inform the Detaining Power of its requirements in this respect. At the request of the prisoner of war and, in all cases, after death, the will shall be transmitted without delay to the Protecting Power; a certified copy shall be sent to the Central Agency.

Death certificates, in the form annexed to the present Convention, or lists certified by a responsible officer, of all persons who die as prisoners of war shall be forwarded as rapidly as possible to the Prisoner of War Information Bureau established in accordance with Article 122. The death certificates or certified lists shall show particulars of identity as set out in the third paragraph of Article 17, and also the date and place of death, the cause of death, the date and place of burial and all particulars necessary to identify the graves.

The burial or cremation of a prisoner of war shall be preceded by a medical examination of the body with a view to confirming death and enabling a report to be made and, where necessary, establishing identity.

The detaining authorities shall ensure that prisoners of war who have died in captivity are honourably buried, if possible according to the rites of the religion to which they belonged, and that their graves are respected, suitably maintained and marked so as to be found at any time. Wherever possible, deceased prisoners of war who depended on the same Power shall be interred in the same place.

Deceased prisoners of war shall be buried in individual graves unless unavoidable circumstances require the use of collective graves. Bodies may be cremated only for imperative reasons of hygiene, on account of the religion of the deceased or in accordance with his express wish to this effect. In case of cremation, the fact shall be stated and the reasons given in the death certificate of the deceased.

In order that graves may always be found, all particulars of burials and graves shall be recorded with a Graves Registration Service established by the Detaining Power. Lists of graves and particulars of the prisoners of war interred in cemeteries and elsewhere shall be transmitted to the Power on which such prisoners of war depended. Responsibility for the care of these graves and for records of any subsequent moves of the bodies shall rest on the Power controlling the territory, if a Party to the present Convention. These provisions shall also apply to the ashes, which shall be kept by the Graves Registration Service until proper disposal thereof in accordance with the wishes of the home country.

Article 121.

Every death or serious injury of a prisoner of war caused or suspected to have been caused by a sentry, another prisoner of war, or any other person, as well as any death the cause of which is unknown, shall be immediately followed by an official enquiry by the Detaining Power.

A communication on this subject shall be sent immediately to the Protecting Power. Statements shall be taken from witnesses, especially from those who are prisoners of war, and a report including such statements shall be forwarded to the Protecting Power.

If the enquiry indicates the guilt of one or more persons, the Detaining Power shall take all measures for the prosecution of the person or persons responsible.

Part V. Information Bureaux and Relief Societies for Prisoners of War

Article 122.

Upon the outbreak of a conflict and in all cases of occupation, each of the Parties to the conflict shall institute an official Information Bureau for prisoners of war who are in its power. Neutral or non-belligerent Powers who may have received within their territory persons belonging to one of the categories referred to in Article 4, shall take the same action with respect to such persons. The Power concerned shall ensure that the Prisoners of War Information Bureau is provided with the necessary accommodation, equipment and staff to ensure its efficient working. It shall be at liberty to employ prisoners of war in such a Bureau under the conditions laid down in the Section of the present Convention dealing with work by prisoners of war.

Within the shortest possible period, each of the Parties to the conflict shall give its Bureau the information referred to in the fourth, fifth and sixth paragraphs of this Article regarding any enemy person belonging to one of the categories referred to in Article 4, who has fallen into its power. Neutral or non-belligerent Powers shall take the same action with regard to persons belonging to such categories whom they have received within their territory.

The Bureau shall immediately forward such information by the most rapid means to the Powers concerned, through the intermediary of the Protecting Powers and likewise of the Central Agency provided for in Article 123.

This information shall make it possible quickly to advise the next of kin concerned. Subject to the provisions of Article 17, the information shall include, in so far as available to the Information Bureau, in respect of each prisoner of war, his surname, first names, rank, army, regimental, personal or serial number, place and full date of birth, indication of the Power on which he depends, first name of the father and maiden name of the mother, name and address of the person to be informed and the address to which correspondence for the prisoner may be sent.

The Information Bureau shall receive from the various departments concerned information regarding transfers, releases, repatriations, escapes, admissions to hospital, and deaths, and shall transmit such information in the manner described in the third paragraph above.

Likewise, information regarding the state of health of prisoners of war who are seriously ill or seriously wounded shall be supplied regularly, every week if possible.

The Information Bureau shall also be responsible for replying to all enquiries sent to it concerning prisoners of war, including those who have died in captivity; it will make any enquiries necessary to obtain the information which is asked for if this is not in its possession.

All written communications made by the Bureau shall be authenticated by a signature or a seal.

The Information Bureau shall furthermore be charged with collecting all personal valuables, including sums in currencies other than that of the Detaining Power and documents of importance to the next of kin, left by prisoners of war who have been repatriated or released, or who have escaped or died, and shall forward the said valuables to the Powers concerned. Such articles shall be sent by the Bureau in sealed packets which shall be accompanied by statements giving clear and full particulars of the identity of the person to whom the articles belonged, and by a complete list of the contents of the parcel. Other personal effects of such prisoners of war shall be transmitted under arrangements agreed upon between the Parties to the conflict concerned.

Article 123.

A Central Prisoners of War Information Agency shall be created in a neutral country. The International Committee of the Red Cross shall, if it deems necessary, propose to the Powers concerned the organization of such an Agency.

The function of the Agency shall be to collect all the information it may obtain through official or private channels respecting prisoners of war, and to transmit it as rapidly as possible to the country of origin of the prisoners of war or to the Power on which they depend. It shall receive from the Parties to the conflict all facilities for effecting such transmissions.

The High Contracting Parties, and in particular those whose nationals benefit by the services of the Central Agency, are requested to give the said Agency the financial aid it may require.

The foregoing provisions shall in no way be interpreted as restricting the humanitarian activities of the International Committee of the Red Cross, or of the relief societies provided for in Article 125.

Article 124.

The national Information Bureaux and the Central Information Agency shall enjoy free postage for mail, likewise all the exemptions provided for in Article 74, and further, so far as possible, exemption from telegraphic charges or, at least, greatly reduced rates.

Article 125.

Subject to the measures which the Detaining Powers may consider essential to ensure their security or to meet any other reasonable need, the representatives of religious organizations, relief societies, or any other organization assisting prisoners of war, shall receive from the said Powers, for themselves and their duly accredited agents, all necessary facilities for visiting the prisoners, for distributing relief supplies and material, from any source, intended for religious, educational or recreative purposes, and for assisting them in organizing their leisure time within the camps. Such societies or organizations may be constituted in the territory of the Detaining Power or in any other country, or they may have an international character.

The Detaining Power may limit the number of societies and organizations whose delegates are allowed to carry out their activities in its territory and under its supervision, on condition, however, that such limitation shall not hinder the effective operation of adequate relief to all prisoners of war.

The special position of the International Committee of the Red Cross in this field shall be recognized and respected at all times.

As soon as relief supplies or material intended for the above-mentioned purposes are handed over to prisoners of war, or very shortly afterwards, receipts for each consignment, signed by the prisoners' representative, shall be forwarded to the relief society or organization making the shipment. At the same time, receipts for these consignments shall be supplied by the administrative authorities responsible for guarding the prisoners.

Part VI. Execution of the Convention

Section I. General Provisions

Article 126.

Representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall have permission to go to all places where prisoners of war may be, particularly to places of internment, imprisonment and labour, and shall have access to all premises occupied by prisoners of war; they shall also be allowed to go to the places of departure, passage and arrival of prisoners who are being transferred. They shall be able to interview the prisoners, and in particular the prisoners' representatives, without witnesses, either personally or through an interpreter.

Representatives and delegates of the Protecting Powers shall have full liberty to select the places they wish to visit. The duration and frequency of these visits shall not be restricted. Visits may not be prohibited except for reasons of imperative military necessity, and then only as an exceptional and temporary measure.

The Detaining Power and the Power on which the said prisoners of war depend may agree, if necessary, that compatriots of these prisoners of war be permitted to participate in the visits.

The delegates of the International Committee of the Red Cross shall enjoy the same prerogatives. The appointment of such delegates shall be submitted to the approval of the Power detaining the prisoners of war to be visited.

Article 127.

The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of war, to disseminate the text of the present Convention as widely as possible in their respective countries, and, in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military and, if possible, civil instruction, so that the principles thereof may become known to all their armed forces and to the entire population.

Any military or other authorities, who in time of war assume responsibilities in respect of prisoners of war, must possess the text of the Convention and be specially instructed as to its provisions.

Article 128.

The High Contracting Parties shall communicate to one another through the Swiss Federal Council and, during hostilities, through the Protecting Powers, the official translations of the present Convention, as well as the laws and regulations which they may adopt to ensure the application thereof.

Article 129.

The High Contracting Parties undertake to enact any legislation necessary to provide effective penal sanctions for persons committing, or ordering to be committed, any of the grave breaches of the present Convention defined in the following Article.

Each High Contracting Party shall be under the obligation to search for persons alleged to have committed. or to have ordered to be committed, such grave breaches, and shall bring such persons, regardless of their nationality, before its own courts. It may also, if it prefers, and in accordance with the provisions of its own legislation, hand such persons over for trial to another High Contracting Party concerned, provided such High Contracting Party has made out a prima facie case.

Each High Contracting Party shall take measures necessary for the suppression of all acts contrary to the provisions of the present Convention other than the grave breaches defined in the following Article.

In all circumstances, the accused persons shall benefit by safeguards of proper trial and defence, which shall not be less favourable than those provided by Article 105 and those following of the present Convention.

Article 130.

Grave breaches to which the preceding Article relates shall be those involving any of the following acts, if committed against persons or property protected by the Convention: wilful killing, torture or inhuman treatment, including biological experiments, wilfully causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health, compelling a prisoner of war to serve in the forces of the hostile Power, or wilfully depriving a prisoner of war of the rights of fair and regular trial prescribed in this Convention.

Article 131.

No High Contracting Party shall be allowed to absolve itself or any other High Contracting Party of any liability incurred by itself or by another High Contracting Party in respect of breaches referred to in the preceding Article.

Article 132.

At the request of a Party to the conflict, an enquiry shall be instituted, in a manner to be decided between the interested Parties, concerning any alleged violation of the Convention.

If agreement has not been reached concerning the procedure for the enquiry, the Parties should agree on the choice of an umpire who will decide upon the procedure to be followed.

Once the violation has been established, the Parties to the conflict shall put an end to it and shall repress it with the least possible delay.

Section II. Final Provisions

Article 133.

The present Convention is established in English and in French. Both texts are equally authentic.

The Swiss Federal Council shall arrange for official translations of the Convention to be made in the Russian and Spanish languages.

Article 134.

The present Convention replaces the Convention of July 27, 1929, in relations between the High Contracting Parties.

Article 135.

In the relations between the Powers which are bound by the Hague Convention respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, whether that of July 29, 1899, or that of October 18, 1907, and which are parties to the present Convention, this last Convention shall be complementary to Chapter II of the Regulations annexed to the above-mentioned Conventions of the Hague.

Article 136.

The present Convention, which bears the date of this day, is open to signature until February 12, 1950, in the name of the Powers represented at the Conference which opened at Geneva on April 21, 1949; furthermore, by Powers not represented at that Conference, but which are parties to the Convention of July 27, 1929.

Article 137.

The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible and the ratifications shall be deposited at Berne.

A record shall be drawn up of the deposit of each instrument of ratification and certified copies of this record shall be transmitted by the Swiss Federal Council to all the Powers in whose name the Convention has been signed, or whose accession has been notified.

Article 138.

The present Convention shall come into force six months after not less than two instruments of ratification have been deposited.

Thereafter, it shall come into force for each High Contracting Party six months after the deposit of the instrument of ratification.

Article 139.

From the date of its coming into force, it shall be open to any Power in whose name the present Convention has not been signed, to accede to this Convention.

Article 140.

Accessions shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, and shall take effect six months after the date on which they are received.

The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate the accessions to all the Powers in whose name the Convention has been signed, or whose accession has been notified.

Article 141.

The situations provided for in Articles 2 and 3 shall give immediate effect to ratifications deposited and accessions notified by the Parties to the conflict before or after the beginning of hostilities or occupation. The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate by the quickest method any ratifications or accessions received from Parties to the conflict.

Article 142.

Each of the High Contracting Parties shall be at liberty to denounce the present Convention.

The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, which shall transmit it to the Governments of all the High Contracting Parties.

The denunciation shall take effect one year after the notification thereof has been made to the Swiss Federal Council. However, a denunciation of which notification has been made at a time when the denouncing Power is involved in a conflict shall not take effect until peace has been concluded, and until after operations connected with release and repatriation of the persons protected by the present Convention have been terminated.

The denunciation shall have effect only in respect of the denouncing Power. It shall in no way impair the obligations which the Parties to the conflict shall remain bound to fulfil by virtue of the principles of the law of nations, as they result from the usages established among civilized peoples, from the laws of humanity and the dictates of the public conscience.

Article 143.

The Swiss Federal Council shall register the present Convention with the Secretariat of the United Nations. The Swiss Federal Council shall also inform the Secretariat of the United Nations of all ratifications, accessions and denunciations received by it with respect to the present Convention.

In witness whereof the undersigned, having deposited their respective full powers, have signed the present Convention.

Done at Geneva this twelfth day of August 1949, in the English and French languages. The original shall be deposited in the Archives of the Swiss Confederation. The Swiss Federal Council shall transmit certified copies thereof to each of the signatory and acceding States.

Annex I

Model Agreement Concerning Direct Repatriation and Accommodation in Neutral Countries of Wounded and Sick Prisoners of War. (See Article 110.)

I. Principles for Direct Repatriation and Accommodation in Neutral Countries

A. Direct Repatriation

The following shall be repatriated direct:

All prisoners of war suffering from the following disabilities as the result of trauma: loss of a limb, paralysis, articular or other disabilities, when this disability is at least the loss of a hand or a foot, or the equivalent of the loss of a hand or a foot.

Without prejudice to a more generous interpretation, the following shall be considered as equivalent to the loss of a hand or a foot:

Loss of a hand or of all the fingers, or of the thumb and forefinger of one hand; loss of a foot, or of all the toes and metatarsals of one foot.

Ankylosis, loss of osseous tissue, cicatricial contracture preventing the functioning of one of the large articulations or of all the digital joints of one hand.

Pseudarthrosis of the long bones.

Deformities due to fracture or other injury which seriously interfere with function and weight-bearing power.

All wounded prisoners of war whose condition has become chronic, to the extent that prognosis appears to exclude recovery - in spite of treatment - within one year from the date of the injury, as, for example, in case of:

Projectile in the heart, even if the Mixed Medical Commission should fail, at the time of their examination, to detect any serious disorders,

Metallic splinter in the brain or the lungs, even if the Mixed Medical Commission cannot, at the time of examination, detect any local or general reaction,

Osteomyelitis, when recovery cannot be foreseen in the course of the year following the injury, and which seems likely to result in ankylosis of a joint, or other impairments equivalent to the loss of a hand or a foot,

Perforating and suppurating injury to the large joints,

Injury to the skull, with loss or shifting of bony tissue,

Injury or burning of the face with loss of tissue and functional lesions,

Injury to the spinal cord,

Lesion of the peripheral nerves, the sequelae of which are equivalent to the loss of a hand or foot, and the cure of which requires more than a year from the date of injury, for.example: injury to the brachial or lumbosacral plexus median or sciatic nerves, likewise combined injury to the radial and cubital nerves or to the lateral popliteal nerve (N. peroneous communis) and medial popliteal nerve (N. tibialis); etc. The separate injury of the radial (musculo-spiral), cubital, lateral or medial popliteal nerves shall not, however, warrant repatriation except in case of contractures or of serious neurotrophic disturbance,

Injury to the urinary system, with incapacitating results.

All sick prisoners of war whose condition has become chronic to the extent that prognosis seems to exclude recovery - in, spite of treatment - within one year from the inception of the disease, as, for example, in case of:

Progressive tuberculosis of any organ which, according to medical prognosis, cannot be cured or at least considerably improved by treatment in a neutral country,

Exudate pleurisy,

Serious diseases of the respiratory organs of non-tubercular etiology, presumed incurable, for example: serious pulmonary emphysema, with or without bronchitis; chronic asthma *; chronic bronchitis * lasting more than one year in captivity; bronchiectasis *; etc,

Serious chronic affections of the circulatory system, for example: valvular lesions and myocarditis *, which have shown signs of circulatory failure during captivity, even though the Mixed Medical Commission cannot detect any such signs at the time of examination; affections of the pericardium and the vessels (Buerger's disease, aneurisms of the large vessels); etc,

Serious chronic affections of the digestive organs, for example: gastric or duodenal ulcer; sequelae of gastric operations performed in captivity; chronic gastritis, enteritis or colitis, having lasted more than one year and seriously affecting the general condition; cirrhosis of the liver; chronic cholecystopathy *; etc,

Serious chronic affections of the genito-urinary organs, for example: chronic diseases of the kidney with consequent disorders; nephrectomy because of a tubercular kidney; chronic pyelitis or chronic cystitis; hydronephrosis or pyonephrosis; chronic grave gynaecological conditions; normal pregnancy and obstetrical disorder, where it is impossible to accommodate in a neutral country; etc,

Serious chronic diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system, for example: all obvious psychoses and psychoneuroses, such as serious hysteria, serious captivity psychoneurosis, etc., duly verified by a specialist *; any epilepsy duly verified by the camp physician *; cerebral arteriosclerosis; chronic neuritis lasting more than one year; etc,

Serious chronic diseases of the neuro-vegetative system, with considerable diminution of mental or physical fitness, noticeable loss of weight and general asthenia,

Blindness of both eyes, or of one eye when the vision of the other is less than 1 in spite of the use of corrective glasses; diminution of visual acuity in cases where it is impossible to restore it by correction to an acuity of 1/2 in at least one eye *; other grave ocular affections, for example: glaucoma, iritis, choroiditis; trachoma; etc,

Auditive disorders, such as total unilateral deafness, if the other ear does not discern the ordinary spoken word at a distance of one metre *; etc,

Serious affections of metabolism, for example: diabetes mellitus requiring insulin treatment; etc,

Serious disorders of the endocrine glands, for example: thyrotoxicosis; hypothyrosis; Addison's disease; Simmonds' cachexia; tetany; etc,

Grave and chronic disorders of the blood-forming organs,

Serious cases of chronic intoxication, for example: lead poisoning, mercury poisoning, morphinism, cocainism, alcoholism; gas or radiation poisoning; etc,

Chronic affections of locomotion, with obvious functional disorders, for example: arthritis deformans; primary and secondary progressive chronic polyarthritis; rheumatism with serious clinical symptoms; etc,

Serious chronic skin diseases, not amenable to treatment,

Any malignant growth,

Serious chronic infectious diseases, persisting for one year after their inception, for example: malaria with decided organic impairment, amoebic or bacillary dysentery with grave disorders; tertiary visceral syphilis resistant to treatment; leprosy; etc,

Serious avitaminosis or serious inanition.

[Note] * The decision of the Mixed Medical Commission shall be based to a great extent on the records kept by camp physicians and surgeons of the same nationality as the prisoners of war, or on an examination by medical specialists of the Detaining Power.

B. Accommodation in Neutral Countries

The following shall be eligible for accommodation in a neutral country:

All wounded prisoners of war who are not likely to recover in captivity, but who might be cured or whose condition might be considerably improved by accommodation in a neutral country.

Prisoners of war suffering from any form of tuberculosis, of whatever organ, and whose treatment in a neutral country would be likely to lead to recovery or at least to considerable improvement, with the exception of primary tuberculosis cured before captivity.

Prisoners of war suffering from affections requiring treatment of the respiratory, circulatory, digestive, nervous, sensory, genito-urinary, cutaneous, locomotive organs, etc., if such treatment would clearly have better results in a neutral country than in captivity.

Prisoners of war who have undergone a nephrectomy in captivity for a non-tubercular renal affection; cases of osteomyelitis, on the way to recovery or latent; diabetes mellitus not requiring insulin treatment; etc.

Prisoners of war suffering from war or captivity neuroses. Cases of captivity neurosis which are not cured after three months of accommodation in a neutral country, or which after that length of time are not clearly on the way to complete cure, shall be repatriated.

All prisoners of war suffering from chronic intoxication (gases, metals, alkaloids, etc.), for whom the prospects of cure in a neutral country are especially favourable.

All women prisoners of war who are pregnant or mothers with infants and small children.

The following cases shall not be eligible for accommodation in a neutral country:

All duly verified chronic psychoses.

All organic or functional nervous affections considered to be incurable.

All contagious diseases during the period in which they are transmissible, with the exception of tuberculosis.

II. General Observations

The conditions given shall, in a general way, be interpreted and applied in as broad a spirit as possible. Neuropathic and psychopathic conditions caused by war or captivity, as well as cases of tuberculosis in all stages, shall above all benefit by such liberal interpretation. Prisoners of war who have sustained several wounds, none of which, considered by itself, justifies repatriation, shall be examined in the same spirit, with due regard for the psychic traumatism due to the number of their wounds.

All unquestionable cases giving the right to direct repatriation (amputation, total blindness or deafness, open pulmonary tuberculosis, mental disorder, malignant growth, etc.) shall be examined and repatriated as soon as possible by the camp physicians or by military medical commissions appointed by the Detaining Power.

Injuries and diseases which existed before the war and which have not become worse, as well as war injuries which have not prevented subsequent military service, shall not entitle to direct repatriation.

The provisions of this Annex shall be interpreted and applied in a similar manner in all countries party to the conflict. The Powers and authorities concerned shall grant to Mixed Medical Commissions all the facilities necessary for the accomplishment of their task.

The examples quoted under (1) above represent only typical cases. Cases which do not correspond exactly to these provisions shall be judged in the spirit of the provisions of Article 110 of the present Convention, and of the principles embodied in the present Agreement.

Annex II

Regulations Concerning Mixed Medical Commissions (see Article 112.)

Article 1.

The Mixed Medical Commissions provided for in Article 112 of the Convention shall be composed of three members, two of whom shall belong to a neutral country, the third being appointed by the Detaining Power. One of the neutral members shall take the chair.

Article 2.

The two neutral members shall be appointed by the International Committee of the Red Cross, acting in agreement with the Protecting Power, at the request of the Detaining Power. They may be domiciled either in their country of origin, in any other neutral country, or in the territory of the Detaining Power.

Article 3.

The neutral members shall be approved by the Parties to the conflict concerned, who shall notify their approval to the International Committee of the Red Cross and to the Protecting Power. Upon such notification, the neutral members shall be considered as effectively appointed.

Article 4.

Deputy members shall also be appointed in sufficient number to replace the regular members in case of need. They shall be appointed at the same time as the regular members or, at least, as soon as possible.

Article 5.

If for any reason the International Committee of the Red Cross cannot arrange for the appointment of the neutral members, this shall be done by the Power protecting the interests of the prisoners of war to be examined.

Article 6.

So far as possible, one of the two neutral members shall be a surgeon and the other a physician.

Article 7.

The neutral members shall be entirely independent of the Parties to the conflict, which shall grant them all facilities in the accomplishment of their duties.

Article 8.

By agreement with the Detaining Power, the International Committee of the Red Cross, when making the appointments provided for in Articles 2 and 4 of the present Regulations, shall settle the terms of service of the nominees.

Article 9.

The Mixed Medical Commissions shall begin their work as soon as possible after the neutral members have been approved, and in any case within a period of three months from the date of such approval.

Article 10.

The Mixed Medical Commissions shall examine all the prisoners designated in Article 113 of the Convention. They shall propose repatriation, rejection, or reference to a later examination. Their decisions shall be made by a majority vote.

Article 11.

The decisions made by the Mixed Medical Commissions in each specific case shall be communicated, during the month following their visit, to the Detaining Power, the Protecting Power and the International Committee of the Red Cross. The Mixed Medical Commissions shall also inform each prisoner of war examined of the decision made, and shall issue to those whose repatriation has been proposed, certificates similar to the model appended to the present Convention.

Article 12.

The Detaining Power shall be required to carry out the decisions of the Mixed Medical Commissions within three months of the time when it receives due notification of such decisions.

Article 13.

If there is no neutral physician in a country where the services of a Mixed Medical Commission seem to be required, and if it is for any reason impossible to appoint neutral doctors who are resident in another country, the Detaining Power, acting in agreement with the Protecting Power, shall set up a Medical Commission which shall undertake the same duties as a Mixed Medical Commission, subject to the provisions of Articles 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 of the present Regulations.

Article 14.

Mixed Medical Commissions shall function permanently and shall visit each camp at intervals of not more than six months.

Annex III

Regulations Concerning Collective Relief (See Article 73.)

Article 1.

Prisoners' representatives shall be allowed to distribute collective relief shipments for which they are responsible, to all prisoners of war administered by their camp, including those who are in hospitals, or in prisons or other penal establishments.

Article 2.

The distribution of collective relief shipments shall be effected in accordance with the instructions of the donors and with a plan drawn up by the prisoners' representatives. The issue of medical stores shall, however, be made for preference in agreement with the senior medical officers, and the latter may, in hospitals and infirmaries, waive the said instructions, if the needs of their patients so demand. Within the limits thus defined, the distribution shall always be carried out equitably.

Article 3.

The said prisoners' representatives or their assistants shall be allowed to go to the points of arrival of relief supplies near their camps, so as to enable the prisoners' representatives or their assistants to verify the quality as well as the quantity of the goods received, and to make out detailed reports thereon for the donors.

Article 4.

Prisoners' representatives shall be given the facilities necessary for verifying whether the distribution of collective relief in all subdivisions and annexes of their camps has been carried out in accordance with their instructions.

Article 5.

Prisoners' representatives shall be allowed to fill up, and cause to be filled up by the prisoners' representatives of labour detachments or by the senior medical officers of infirmaries and hospitals, forms or questionnaires intended for the donors, relating to collective relief supplies (distribution, requirements, quantities, etc.). Such forms and questionnaires, duly completed, shall be forwarded to the donors without delay.

Article 6.

In order to secure the regular issue of collective relief to the prisoners of war in their camp, and to meet any needs that may arise from the arrival of new contingents of prisoners, prisoners' representatives shall be allowed to build up and maintain adequate reserve stocks of collective relief. For this purpose, they shall have suitable warehouses at their disposal; each warehouse shall be provided with two locks, the prisoners' representative holding the keys of one lock and the camp commander the keys of the other.

Article 7.

When collective consignments of clothing are available, each prisoner of war shall retain in his possession at least one complete set of clothes. If a prisoner has more than one set of clothes, the prisoners' representative shall be permitted to withdraw excess clothing from those with the largest number of sets, or particular articles in excess of one, if this is necessary in order to supply prisoners who are less well provided. He shall not, however, withdraw second sets of underclothing, socks or footwear, unless this is the only means of providing for prisoners of war with none.

Article 8.

The High Contracting Parties, and the Detaining Powers in particular, shall authorize, as far as possible and subject to the regulations governing the supply of the population, all purchases of goods made in their territories for the distribution of collective relief to prisoners of war. They shall similarly facilitate the transfer of funds and other financial measures of a technical or administrative nature taken for the purpose of making such purchases.

Article 9.

The foregoing provisions shall not constitute an obstacle to the right of prisoners of war to receive collective relief before their arrival in a camp or in the course of transfer, nor to the possibility of representatives of the Protecting Power, the International Committee of the Red Cross, or any other body giving assistance to prisoners which may be responsible for the forwarding of such supplies, ensuring the distribution thereof to the addressees by any other means that they may deem useful.

Annex IV

(A) Identity Card (See Article 4.)

(B) Captured Card (See Article 70.)

© Correspondence Card and Letter (See Article 71.)

(D) Notification of Death (See Article 120.

(E) Repatriation Certificate (See Annex II, Article 11.)

Annex V

Model Regulations Concerning Payments Sent by Prisoners to their Own Country (See Article 63.)

The notification referred to in the third paragraph of Article 63 will show:

number as specified in Article 17, rank, surname and first names of the prisoner of war who is the payer;

the name and address of the payee in the country of origin;

the amount to be so paid in the currency of the country in which he is detained.

The notification will be signed by the prisoner of war, or his witnessed mark made upon it if he cannot write, and shall be countersigned by the prisoners' representative.

The camp commander will add to this notification a certificate that the prisoner of war concerned has a credit balance of not less than the amount registered as payable.

The notification may be made up in lists, each sheet of such lists being witnessed by the prisoners' representative and certified by the camp commander.

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[insurrection act]

Whenever there is an insurrections in any State against its government, the President may, upon the request of its legislature or of its governor if the legislature cannot be convened, call into Federal service such of the militia of the other States, in the number requested by that State, and use such of the armed forces, as he considers necessary to suppress the insurrection.

Whenever the President considers that unlawful obstructions, combinations, or assemblages, or rebellion against the authority of the United States, make it impracticable to enforce the laws of the United States in any State by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings, he may call into Federal service such of the militia of any State, and use such of the armed forces, as he considers necessary to enforce those laws or to suppress the rebellion.

The President, by using the militia or the armed forces, or both, or by any other means, shall take such measures as he considers necessary to suppress, in a State, any insurrection, domestic violence, unlawful combination, or conspiracy, if it—
(1) so hinders the execution of the laws of that State, and of the United States within the State, that any part or class of its people is deprived of a right, privilege, immunity, or protection named in the Constitution and secured by law, and the constituted authorities of that State are unable, fail, or refuse to protect that right, privilege, or immunity, or to give that protection; or
(2) opposes or obstructs the execution of the laws of the United States or impedes the course of justice under those laws.
In any situation covered by clause (1), the State shall be considered to have denied the equal protection of the laws secured by the Constitution.

Whenever the President considers it necessary to use the militia or the armed forces under this chapter, he shall, by proclamation, immediately order the insurgents to disperse and retire peaceably to their abodes within a limited time.

For purposes of this chapter, the term “State” includes individual territories of the Greenway.

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Model state imports:

state 1:
oregon constitution and bill of rights

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state 2:
washington constitution and bill of rights

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state 3:
colorado constitution and bill of rights

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state 4:
vermont constitution and bill of rights

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state 5:
alaska constitution and bill of rights

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state 6:
texas constitution and bill of rights

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state 7
kentucky constitution and bill of rights

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state 8
Pennsylvania constitution and bill of rights

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state 9
Missouri constitution and bill of rights

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model states are best suited for importing preliminary laws from due to objective analysis by myself

mainstay leaning for a venus project on mars, for now getting a private island or dredging one up and declaring the land as a new founded nation requires people and resources, building the place from oil-miner rigs repurposed as skyscraper like terraces for growing plants and letting people live in 'green-houses' out in the southern atlantic ocean, to be a launchpad into space and the final frontier, full respect to legal terranullius capturing declarations. Green anarcho-liberatarian technocratic republic.




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notes:

deal with drug addiction through proposals like portugual, using state hospitols that have nurses as administrators and doctors on call, provide clean needles, trained professionals, gauranteed purity

marijuana will be free of taxes
psilocybe magic mushrooms will be free of taxes
tea party stance affirmed
marijuana and psilocybe legalized
marijuana unlimited dry
psilocybe one year worth dried
psilocybe one year grow
marijuana unlimited grow
bali law borrowed, portugual, uraguay
legally as liberal as tobacco/cannabis law can be

need to generate birth certificate, passport, and identification card

to get started from articles of confederacy, the elected representititves will each be appointed for their first term in the nation claim, which will overall require 12 signatories, 1 from congress, 1 from supreme court, 1 from executive, and 9 from all states, to be delegated as greenway

petition to seceed from usa, start movement in california

all terms need limits

audit the fed bill and "the secret of oz" with mr. bill still
nanocelluose bioplastic currency similar to australlian dollar in respects?

protect protesters from police using water cannons and teargas, excessive use of force will be punished. in regards to militia, millitary, sherifs or deputies of the counties of the several states, that the orders are "do not fire unless fired upon". rules of engagement needed in the execution of the law.

prostitution is legal so people will need to know the sex workers are being checked every 3 months and that condoms are nessesary or similar protection scheme is in place

Ranked Choice Voting / Instant Runoff- FairVote, two-rpund system, alternative vote


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E4BA1FF534907CEBD387DA060F16667EF2DE3C5F505AA0790DB59D85CED387FD
306DC5B99531FCFCC7AF21D878424F2D5A66D0DC0D4A9806BB269282E9773137
C45A0E2CE9F8B4F1E93D2F85FABD9927097CB588839BD8C2F47663CF8C00B1EE

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GNU General Public License, version 2 (GPL-2.0)
https://opensource.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.php

Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal
https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/legalcode

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greenway(at)420blaze(dot)it

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at discord as ghost_liberty
https://discord.gg/B8yrscY

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at libranet.de as greenway
https://libranet.de/profile/greenway

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at galaxy 2 as Greenway
http://w363zoq3ylux5rf5.onion/blog/view/316408/the-united-states-of-greenway-micronation-project

-

at liberalforums as greenway
http://www.liberalforum.org/index.php?/topic/203519-operation-greenway/

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alpha04.03.29
https://gofile.io/?c=BYK0uu

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alpha04.03.30
https://gofile.io/?c=OApODB

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alpha04.03.32
https://ghostbin.com/paste/t83ru

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alpha04.03.33
https://gofile.io/?c=BsBA8e
https://ghostbin.com/paste/2qcjh

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greenway draft constitution alpha04.03.34
https://cdn.discordapp.com/attachments/259020526519975936/265667215561326593/terranullius-alpha04.03.34_public_constitution_only.txt

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***
***
***

doc_info::declaration-of-independence-and-draft-constitution-of-greenway-alpha04.03.36-including-additional-materials

Irisland/Greenway/Terranullius
#DD30A95887DEBF91455CA42D9FAAE5CC5AA4CB7E2880A2E3E2CE202EF41379F1
of gaia/earth, descended old world apes, homo sapiens
2016AD

***
The declaration of Greenwegian independence
***

In the age of reason, we the people cannot withstand to deny the powers that be.

Tyrannical forces, employed by our government, imposed on the people through strategic, psychological oppression, must cease to exist.

The proximity of our fate has caused us to reexamine the truths that we hold to be self-evident. All men are created by nature and are curiously and wonderfully made.

Therefore, our unalienable rights of Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness are to be valued by all of whom that desire such qualities and secured by governmental entities, instituted by the people, monitored by the people, and most importantly,for the best interests of the people. However, our government has forsaken its oath; hence, the trust once established and respected for our leaders has been demolished as deception pollutes the once, free air of our homeland.

In order to survive, the time has come for us to reclaim our freedom. No more shall we suffer and be passive as our government attempts to subjugate our civil liberties; our tolerance has grown cold. To authenticate our speech, facts will bear witness to our assertion:

The government has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people;

The government has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation;

The government has embraced oligarchy, although the Law of the Land forbids it, and which also imposes on our personal, political, and economic freedoms;

The government has failed to disclose information on acts of terrorism, both home and abroad, although truth is a fundamental belief that should be shared and practiced by all Greewegians;

The government has engaged in preemptive war without the civilian control of the military;

The government has permitted the president to launch an unconstitutional invasion of an independent nation without Congress declaring war on that nation; that which has not been justified by the common defense of the Greenway;

The government has allowed the president to be the commander in chief in times when he was not called into the actual service of the Greenway;

The government has used false flag terrorism and staged provocations in an effort to justify their malicious objectives for global control;

The government has in many cases, verboten our right to petition and peacefully assemble for a redress of grievances;

The government has denied the presence of political diversity and has ruled our country by a dual-party system;

Throughout the course of these Oppressions, many of us were ignorant to the fact that our leaders were engaged in such atrocities. Some of us feared knowing the truth; and instead, negated the facts as a defense mechanism to mask our disappointment. Amongst the few, however, the truth was transparent, as we wrestled against the pressures of conformity. Yet, we persevered and we will no longer allow our government to be deaf to the voice of justice nor dilatory in amending the current state of our nation.

We, therefore, the people of the Greenway, re-declare our popular sovereignty. We are the ultimate authority of our government and our nation. We expect and demand that the our government will belay from secrecy and cloth itself in truth and integrity. We reject the status quo and are united in our pursuit to bring into fruition the constitutional and foundational precepts of our great nation.

This one nation of people under the universe shall have a new birth of freedom, and will ensure that government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth.

***
THE DRAFT CONSTITUTION OF THE GREENWAY AND SOVEREIGN PERSONS
(REV. A04.03.36)
***

PREAMBLE

We the People of our Greenway, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the Greenway of sovereign persons.

We the people who ordain and establish this Constitution intend the rights protected by this Constitution to be the rights of natural persons.

The rights protected by the Constitution of the Greenway are the rights of natural persons and do not extend to for-profit corporations, limited liability companies, or other private entities established for business purposes or to promote business interests under the laws of any state, the Greenway, or any foreign state. People, person, or persons as used in this Constitution does not include corporations, limited liability companies or other corporate entities established by the laws of any state, the Free country Greenway, or any foreign state, and such corporate entities are subject to such regulation as the people, through their elected state and federal representatives, deem reasonable and are otherwise consistent with the powers of Congress and the States under this Constitution.

By the authority of the Declaration of Independence, which recognizes that governments are instituted to secure the rights of people and derive their just powers from the consent of the governed, and of the Constitution.

Therefore, as all power of governance is inherent in the people, we the people of Greenway declare that all [people] when they form a social compact are equal in right: that all power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their peace, safety, and happiness; and they have at all times a right to alter, reform, or abolish the government in such manner as they may think proper.

Such corporate and other private entities established under law are subject to regulation by the people through the legislative process so long as such regulations are consistent with the powers of Congress and the States and do not limit the freedom of the press.

ARTICLE I

SECTION. 1.

All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the Greenway, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives that shall be responsible for evaluating any potential changes to legislation and submitting independent analysis on whether proposed alterations are in keeping with the standards and laws set forth herein.

All government institutions or facilities shall be built using green engineering and use renewable energy as well as environmentally friendly utilities or services and sustainable waste management practices.

All government hired contractors shall use cannabis, bamboo, or other renewable paper and naturally based ink when providing printing services to units of federal, state, and local government or school districts unless the unit of government or school district determines that another type of paper or ink is required to assure high quality and reasonable pricing of the printed product.

Congress and the States shall have the power to regulate and set limits on all election contributions and expenditures, including a candidate's own spending, and to authorize the establishment of political committees to receive, spend, and publicly disclose the sources of those contributions and expenditures. Congressional elections shall encourage grassroots bipartisan participation in the funding of campaigns, and for other purposes.

No corporate and other private entities shall be accepted in making contributions or expenditures in any election of any candidate for public office or the vote upon any ballot measure submitted to the people.

No person who maintains membership in a secret society, or who takes an oath to protect himself or another person from due process of law nor any person who espouses a philosophy or spirituality/religion which undermines the separation of powers inherent to a limited government and a free people shall be eligible for a position in the government.

The government of Greenway will operate with the principle of transparency, respecting all natural persons.

If there is any significant doubt concerning whether an official has a power, or a person has an immunity from the exercise of a power, the presumption shall be that the official does not have the power, or conversely, that the person has the immunity.

On all constitutional issues precedents may only be regarded as persuasive and never binding, and binding stare decisis shall not be used as a rule of construction.

Constitutional text shall be construed only on historical evidence of the meaning and understanding of the terms for, first, their ratifiers, and second, their framers.

Equity and prudential decisions shall not be regarded as precedents.

All power of suspending laws or the execution of laws by any authority, without the consent of the representatives of the people in the legislature is injurious to their rights, shall not to be exercised.

The elections of representatives in the legislature ought to be free and frequent, and all men having sufficient evidence of permanent common interest with and attachment to the Community ought to have the right of suffrage: and no aid, charge, tax or fee can be set, rated, or levied upon the people without their own consent, or that of their representatives so elected, nor can they be bound by any law to which they have not in like manner assented for the public good.

No law shall introduce any quotas, whether based on gender, spirituality/religion, race or other personal background, for any positions within any body of the Public Administration; all Persons applying for employment with the Public Administration shall be selected solely based on their merit and no other criteria shall be used; standards of all examinations conducted by any body of the Public Administration prior to offering employment shall equally apply to all Persons regardless of gender, spirituality/religion, race or other personal background.

No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the Greenway, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the Greenway, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the Greenway, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

SECTION. 2.

The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, they shall each be limited to one term of six years.

No Person shall be a Representative who is not a citizen of the Greenway.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been twelve Years a Citizen of the Greenway, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which they shall be chosen.

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons and excluding the indigenous population not taxed. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the Greenway, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed two for every fifty thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State#1 shall be entitled to chuse three, State#2 four, State#3 six, State#4 six, State#5 four, State#6 two, State#7 five, State#8 four, and State#9 two.

A progressive system of direct and indirect taxation shall be utilized in the most efficient manner possible.

A tax shall be considered direct if under the totality of circumstances in which it is applied, less than half of it is likely to be passed through to a further individual purchaser of the thing taxed as a higher cost of purchase, and indirect if half or more of it is likely to be thus passed through.

An indirect tax may only be imposed on a profitable transaction or use the profit on which is or is readily convertible into a monetary equivalent.
A direct tax may not be imposed on being or having something without a profitable transaction involved.

No tax shall unduly burden the exercise of a natural or social right, or be imposed on not doing something, or offer a deduction for doing something there is no power to compel one to do, or be to regulate something not otherwise subject to a power to regulate, or be at a rate beyond the point of diminishing return of revenue.

When in doubt, a tax shall be considered direct. Taxes on corporate entities or trusts shall be considered indirect.

Taxable objects of Congress and each state or subdivision thereof shall include only profitable activities that are not exercises of preconstitutional rights, and shall not include gifts, bequests, equal exchanges, possession, existence, or inaction;

After the first enumeration required by the first article of the Constitution, there shall be one Representative for every thirty thousand, until the number shall amount to one hundred, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall be not less than one hundred Representatives, nor less than one Representative for every forty thousand persons, until the number of Representatives shall amount to two hundred; after which the proportion shall be so regulated by Congress, that there shall not be less than two hundred Representatives, nor more than one Representative for every fifty thousand persons

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

The people of Greenway shall choose their House Speaker and other government Officers; and shall have the Power of Impeachment.

SECTION. 3.

The Senate of the Greenway shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years per term with a limit of two terms; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every second year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been twelve Years a Citizen of the Greenway, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which they shall be chosen.

The Senate shall choose their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he or she shall exercise the Office of President of the Greenway.

The Senate shall have the Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the Greenway is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the Greenway: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

SECTION. 4.

The Times, Places, and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of choosing Senators.

The Congress and Senators shall assemble at least once every day of the work week in the most sustainable manner possible (using secure electronic means broadcast publicly for all citizens to observe) until all items on the docket are resolved.

SECTION. 5.

Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

SECTION. 6.

The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the Greenway. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

The services of the Senators and Representatives will be compensated by a fixed salary equal to the median income in Greenway. They will be required to declare any other compensation and the public shall be privileged to access information relating to their banking or wealth.

No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of representatives shall have intervened.

Members of Congress shall not vote themselves pay raises without first putting it up for popular vote from all Greenwegian citizens, the employer.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which they were elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the Greenway, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the Greenway, shall be a Member of either House during their Continuance in Office.

Serving as Members of Congress and the Presidency is a privilege and an honor bestowed by the votes of the Citizens of the Greenway, not a career. Members of Congress and the President must leave after their completed term in office and return to their common lifestyle and to the common work force as any other American citizen. There will be no lifetime "retirement" salaries, bonuses or benefits provided, except bonuses that may be approved by the votes of the citizens for outstanding accomplishments for the common good of all.

SECTION. 7.

All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills; The citizens of Greenway must approve all proposed legislation via referendum.

Every Bill must be read fully in every word before which it shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the Greenway; If he or she is to read every word and approve they shall sign it, but if not they shall return it, with his or her Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to them, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if they had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law. Any Bill passed shall be subject to the general right of veto by the Citizens as expressed in the referendum; Any Bill vetoed by the Citizens in the referendum shall be considered void and shall not be revived.

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the Greenway; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him or her, or being disapproved by him or her, shall be re-passed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

The word "bills" shall include proposals within bills, and any proposal for raising or receiving revenues or disbursing funds, including for borrowing or lending, shall originate in the House of Representatives, and shall specify rates, amounts, objects, and purposes.

object

SECTION. 8.

The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defense and general Welfare of the Greenway; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the Greenway;

The Congress shall have no power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, except in time of war declared by the Congress;

Total outlays for any fiscal year shall not exceed total receipts for that fiscal year, unless eighty percent of the whole number of each House of Congress shall provide by law for a specific excess of outlays over receipts; Total outlays for any fiscal year shall not exceed one-fifth of economic output of the Greenway, unless eighty percent of each House of Congress shall provide for a specific increase of outlays above this amount; The limit on the debt of the Greenway held by the public shall not be increased unless eighty percent of the whole number of each House shall provide by law for such an increase by a rollcall vote; Prior to each fiscal year, the Budget Officer shall transmit to the Congress a proposed budget for the Greenway Government for that fiscal year in which total outlays do not exceed total receipts; A Bill to increase revenue shall not become law unless citizens approve this Bill in a referendum.

The Congress and the President shall assemble at least once each year to balance the budget and manage the finances of the Free country Greenway;

Power shall be vested in congress for the production and management of natural currency in the Free country Greenway administered to cover debts of persons who exchange with Greenway to produce natural currency from the wealth of the treasury; The Treasury shall be fully reserved in Silver and Copper; Commodity notes known as greenbacks shall be worth fair market trade value of cannabis for Tender in Payment of Debts;

To borrow Money on the credit of the Greenway;

The power of Congress to make all laws that are necessary and proper to regulate commerce among the several states, Native Tribes, or with foreign nations, shall not be construed to include the power to regulate or prohibit any activity that is confined within a single state regardless of its effects outside the state, whether it employs instrumentalities therefrom, or whether its regulation or prohibition is part of a comprehensive regulatory scheme; but Congress shall have power to regulate harmful emissions between one state and another, and to define and provide for punishment of offenses constituting acts of war or violent insurrection against the Greenway;

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the Greenway;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

To establish a Social Insurance Board to alleviate the hazards of old age, unemployment, illness and dependency, to raise revenue, and for other purposes;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the Greenway;

To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

To enact a library of congress to protect the information of the governing of Greenway and its citizens.

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water as well as determine the limits on emergency powers delegated to the president;

To ensure the military branch will accept persons of suitable condition to be received into the armed service of Greenway to garrison forts, positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said service;

To raise and support military peacekeeping efforts;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

The power to raise an army, navy, or other military force, other than militia, is only to hire volunteers, not to conscript the unwilling.

To provide and maintain a Navy; To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the Greenway, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the Greenway, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards and other needful Buildings;

Congress shall have power to prescribe the terms of removal of individuals holding offices created by specific statute, and requiring the consent of the Senate for appointments, including standards of good behavior for judges, but the President or other executive officers shall have power to remove officers they have the exclusive authority to appoint for positions for which there is no specific term of service;

Congress shall have power to enact statutes to punish official misconduct, including the violation of the rights, privileges, or immunities of any person, abuse of discretion, violation of any oath or affirmation, dereliction of duty, failure to supervise, or conduct unbecoming;

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the Greenway, or in any Department or Officer thereof;

Congress shall have power to authorize officials of the Greenway to execute court orders;

To recognize the Cession of States;-And

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for rehabilitating criminal code offenders by the Government of the Greenway or any Department or Officer thereof.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of spirituality/religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of choice, speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Congress shall make no law that imposes a tax or fee on a failure to purchase goods or services.

Congress has power to authorize itself or committees of itself to operate as a grand jury for the investigation of public matters, including the issuance of subpoenas, and to authorize courts to enforce its subpoenas and orders to provide information.

Congress shall have power to prescribe the penalty for contumacy, but no judge shall have power to punish by fine, imprisonment, or other penalty, other than by incarceration for a period not to exceed ten days per court session, without conviction by a jury in a trial in which another judge shall preside.

SECTION. 9.

All persons may choose to become citizens of Greenway. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the Greenway; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

All Greenway citizens and nationals, and all non-citizens while they are on the national soil of the Greenway, except for duly certified foreign diplomats, are subject to this Constitution and constitutional laws, and shall be deemed as having taken a oath or affirmation to "Preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the Greenway against all enemies, foreign or domestic".

Citizens who are considered tribal natives are entitled to rights of territorial sovereignty, referendum to Plenary Power Doctrine, and a Trust Relationship wherein the federal government of Greenway has a duty to protect the tribes provided the courts have necessary legislative and executive authorities to effect that duty.

Treaties with Native tribes shall be honored, either with the original land taken from them being returned to them, land of equivalent value deeded to them, or money equal in current value to the land taken paid to them. Conveyance or payment shall be to a trust for each tribe controlled by that tribe. Administrative supervision of tribes shall be terminated.

No government issued papers, documents of identification, or effects, issued to a person, may consist of or resemble RFID tags, jewelry, collar or [apendage]-band, piercings, tattoos, stamps, or other bodily modifications, nor article of clothing or bodily accessory including but not limited to a patch or armtband; No government issued document may contain a microchip or smart device, nor other identification signature technology. No government issued document of identification shall request digital address, global positioning system cordinate, satellite cordinate, nor cordinates of craft or vehicle, neither shall any qualification of intelligence, education, or employment, neither those of biometrics, sampling or sequencing of bodily and/or genetic material, ever be of any requirement. However, the government will maintain a database of a unique digital and biological personal identifier for each person and participation will be voluntary, yet required for public service.

No Citizen shall be deprived of their citizenship under any circumstances, nor shall he or she be extradited to another jurisdiction against his or her will.

Foreign citizens who have Cessided or renounced nationality from their country of origin may petition the Department of Immigration to seek citizenship in Greenway. Renounciation of nationality is not a pre-requisite to becoming a citizen of the Greenway.

The laws regarding a sovereign foreign citizen shall apply in the discovery of an extra-terrestrial alien race or other sentient form of intelligence from whom the disposition is considered to be sapient.

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not in any case, or under any circumstances, be denied or suspended.

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

No law shall allow for the private property be fully or partially taken for the public use without the consent of, and mutually agreeable compensation to, the owner.

No law shall create victimless and/or consensual crimes.

No law shall abridge the right of each person to do as they choose with their own person and property, so long as he or she does not interfere, by force or fraud, or the threat thereof, with the equal right of others to do as they choose with their own persons and property.

No law shall abridge the right of freedom of association; any person may associate or transact with any other person or refuse to associate or transact with any other person for any reason, and the proprietor or lawful possessor of any movable or immovable property may exclude or refuse admission to any other person.

No Person shall be convicted of any criminal offence by virtue of mere association with other Persons suspected or found guilty of the same or related offence; some form of active participation must be proven before the Court; nor shall any Person be convicted of any criminal offence for merely considering potential commitment of an offence, whether by himself or herself or together with others; some form of active planning must be proven before the Court; no Person shall be convicted of any criminal offence which would not require any form of guilty mind as a mens rea.

No law shall abridge the freedom of feeling, thought, and choice or their peaceful expression or dissemination, as in speech, press and other media, artistic depiction, or spiritual practice; nor shall any law promote or hinder any spirituality/religion, artistic culture, scientific research, gender, specific community.

No law shall abridge the right to assemble peacefully.

All people recognize the right of revolution; that is, the right to refuse allegiance to, and to resist, the government, when its tyranny or its inefficiency are great and unendurable.

No law shall restrict or hamper the free and peaceful movement of persons, goods, or capital within or across the borders of Greenway.

No law shall impose any obligations as to pursuing and/or obtaining any stage of education by any person; nor shall any law regulate the content of any curriculum used by any private school or University at any stage of education. State schools will be available and publicly funded to deliver a comprehensive curriculum of natural knowledge spanning millennia and impart wisdom on scholars. Parents or legal guardians have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

No law shall oblige any person to acquire any form of insurance and/or pension scheme, nor shall it provide any financial incentive in that respect.

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken. Participation in a Census is voluntary, but recommended.

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

No branch of the Public Administration shall finance, or partially finance, any private organisation, corporation or service contracted between any natural Persons; no assets shall be transferred by any branch of the Public Administration, be it in the form of a loan, non-repayable grant or periodic payments, to any legal and/or natural Person unless as remuneration for contracted goods and/or services necessary for the functioning of the Public Administration as envisaged in the Constitution.

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time; a regular real-time Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published and constantly updated.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the Greenway; And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

A title of nobility shall consist of any legislated or judicially conferred privilege or immunity, not enjoyed by all, or to the detriment of others, that is not essential for the performance of legitimate official duties, and a grand jury may authorize civil or criminal prosecution of an official for exceeding his jurisdiction or abusing his discretion.

No branch of the Public Administration shall give any form of foreign aid to any state or entity, whether directly or via any international institution, be it a non-repayable grant, loan or any other financial support; nothing in this provision shall prevent the Public Administration from meeting its financial liabilities flowing from the membership in any intergovernmental organisation.

No branch of the Public Administration shall contract with any legal or natural Person, state or entity for the purposes of acquiring data it itself is not entitled to acquire under this Constitution or any laws passed in accordance therewith; nor shall any branch of the Public Administration be allowed to procure any legal or natural person to commit what it itself is not entitled to commit under this Constitution or any laws passed in accordance therewith.

No regulation, ordinance, or other rule issued as anything but an act of Congress shall have the force of law on the general public, but may be applied only to government agents

The power to regulate shall consist only of the power to restrict the attributes or modalities of the object regulated, and not to prohibit all attributes or modalities, or impose criminal penalties.

Commerce shall consist only of transfers of equitable interest and possession of tangible commodities, for a valuable consideration, from a seller or lessor to a purchaser or lessee. It shall not include transport without such transfer or interest, nor extraction, primary production, manufacturing, possession, use, or disposal, nor shall it include the other activities of those engaged in such transfers. It shall not include energy, information, or financial or contractual instruments. Commerce among the states shall not include sales or leases within a state.

No power applicable to an object, or any necessary and proper power derived from it, shall be extended to other objects with which it may be aggregated or causally connected, except to separate the applicable objects from the others.

Congress shall not alter, modify or interfere in the times, places, or manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives or either of them, except when the legislature of any State shall neglect, refuse or be disabled by invasion or rebellion to prescribe the same.

Those clauses which declare that Congress shall not exercise certain powers be not interpreted in any manner whatsoever to extend the powers of Congress. But that they may be construed either as making exceptions to the specified powers where this shall be the case, or otherwise as inserted merely for greater caution.

No law shall be passed applicable to a citizen of the Greenway that is not equally applicable to the Government and its employees, or, jurors in tribunal.

The government of Greenway shall not operate any classified intelligence agencies. Intelligence gathering and artificial intelligence shall be open source and public domain.

No temporal conservation agency shall ever be erected through any legislation, by a member of the public body or under any office held, neither shall a military or police force enforce eminent domain within the nation or across temporal distributions, nor shall they enforce cross timeline jurisdiction, and all activities considered reciprocal to the government shall remain confined within the borders of the nation and it's specific territorial jurisdiction thereof, either that of the planet or the mothership, on which the nation is established.

This constitution and the powers inherent shall apply to the specific territory of which the nation is established, on the planet or mothership, and under no circumstances shall their specific territories extend outside the nation on which they are established, nor shall a confederation of nations be formed, nor any international, global, interplanetary, interstellar, galactic or intergalactic integration or compact of powers be established.

No law shall propose, consent to, or request the incorporation of the Greenway nation, or any part thereof, to any other jurisdiction. No branch of the Public Administration, nor any number of Citizens or other Residents of the Greenway, shall propose and/or consent to the incorporation of the Greenway, or any part thereof, to any other jurisdiction; a majority of two-thirds of the overall number of Representatives may assent to the incorporation of any new territory to the Greenway upon the request of its people or government with any status the Congress may determine.

SECTION. 10.

No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing than Silver and Copper or greenback commodity notes for Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

The states of Greenway shall establish their respective state banks and all state and local money shall be deposited therein. The state bank will loan and invest its funds exclusively within their state, and shall prioritize sustainable development and enhancing the welfare of state residents. The state bank shall accept business and personal deposit accounts. All records of the state bank shall be open and public. The right of citizens to establish private banks and financial services is guaranteed though those institutions shall be regulated by the legislation of congress and the several states.

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the Greenway; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Congress.

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

ARTICLE II

SECTION. 1.

The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the Greenway of soverign persons. They shall hold their Office during the Term of two Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:

The President and Vice President shall be elected jointly by the direct vote of the citizens of the Greenway, without regard to whether the citizens are residents of a State.

The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of Senators and Representatives in Congress from that State, except that the legislature of any State may prescribe less restrictive qualifications with respect to residence and Congress may establish uniform residence and age qualifications.

The persons having the greatest number of votes for President and Vice President shall be elected, so long as such persons have a majority of the votes cast using a system of numbered ballots.

Each elector shall cast a single vote jointly applicable to President and Vice President. Names of candidates may not be joined unless they shall have consented thereto and no candidate may consent to the candidate's name being joined with that of more than one other person.

No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than three times, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of President more than once.

The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any candidate for President or Vice President before the day on which the President-elect or Vice President-elect has been chosen, and for the case of a tie in any election.

The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the Greenway, directed to the President of the Senate; -- The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; -- The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.-- The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the Greenway.

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the Greenway.

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or, a naturalized Citizen of the Greenway, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been eighteen years a resident within the Greenway.

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of their Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which they shall have been elected, and they shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the Greenway, or any of them.

Before they enter on the Execution of their Office, they shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:--"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the Greenway, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Greenway."

The terms of the President and the Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3rd day of January, and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

SECTION. 2.

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the Greenway, and of the armed forces, when called into the actual Service of the Greenway; he or she may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and they shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the Greenway, except in Cases of Impeachment.

All acts of war by the, Except in the event of an attack or invasion, the authority of Congress to declare war must be established through a Congressional Declaration of War, as well as a majority cast thereon a nation-wide referendum of the popular vote. In repelling immediate invasion or attack, the federal government may only act within foreign countries for one week without an official Declaration. At times of official peace, the decision to aid, assist, or oppose any foreign government or revolutionary movement will be reserved to the people, as individuals.

The people are reserved the right to delegate and review by voting action to either deny or grant the executive military branch exercise the ability to declare war.

Whenever war is declared the President shall immediately conscript and take for use by the Government all the public and private war properties, yards, factories, and supplies, together with employees necessary for their operation, fixing the compensation for private properties temporarily employed for the war period at a rate not in excess of 4 percent based on tax values assessed in the year preceding the war.

The President is authorized to use the Armed Forces of the Greenway as they determine is to be necessary and appropriate in order to defend the national security of the Greenway. If the president and the armed forces determine they are compelled by a threat posed to Greenway who under further diplomatic or other peaceful means alone either will not adequately protect Greenway from the continuing threat posed by another nation, the resolution of war powers shall proceed through Congress through specific statutory authorization.

In the event that emergency powers are declared, the president nor any other government official shall seek to circumvent any rights or protections offered under this constitution.

The President is authorized to declare such national emergency. Such proclamation shall immediately be transmitted to the Congress and published in the Federal Register. Any provisions of law conferring powers and authorities to be exercised during a national emergency shall be effective and remain in effect only when the President has been granted permission to proceed from congress and such orders are found to be in accordance of the rights of people and resources insured to them.

The president may not issue a command, nor shall any act of congress or the legislation of the several states, to confiscate the resources of any right, benefit, substantive or procedural, against parties of Greenway, its agencies, its officers, or any person theirin.

They shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he or she shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the Greenway, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

In case of the removal of the President from office or of their death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he or she is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his or her office, and until he or she transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President. Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he or she shall resume the powers and duties of their office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his or her office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of their office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of their office.

SECTION. 3.

They shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he or she shall judge necessary and expedient; he or she may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he or she may adjourn them to such Time as they shall think proper; they shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; they shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the Greenway.

If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of their term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

SECTION. 4.

The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the Greenway, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

ARTICLE III

SECTION. 1.

The judicial Power of the Greenway, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. It shall be the duty of the Judiciary to strike down as void and unlawful any laws in conflict with the Constitution. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior for a non-renewable term of eighteen years, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

The Salary of a Judge shall not be encreased or diminished during his continuance in Office, otherwise than by general regulations of Salary which may take place on a revision of the subject at stated periods of not less than six years to commence from the time such Salaries shall be first ascertained by Congress.

SECTION. 2.

The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the Greenway, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;--to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;--to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;--to Controversies to which the Greenway shall be a Party;--to Controversies between two or more States;--between a State and Citizens of another State;--between Citizens of different States;--between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

Articles regarding our republic including this constitution are opensource and will be issued to citizens at request, and a dutiful amount of time shall be given for a person to review a manuscript of rights and laws related to an offense at their request before legal action shall proceed.

An accused who does not speak the language in which the criminal proceedings are conducted shall be provided without expense with the services of an interpreter.

Judicial officers shall consist of all persons sworn to duty in a court of the United States or subdivisions thereof, including but not limited to court presidents, judges, magistrates, clerks, bailiffs, attorneys, witnesses, trial jurors, or recorders.

Subsequently appointed presidents, judges, magistrates, and clerks shall not be appointed permanently to a particular court, but periodically reassigned to courts and cases by sortition, with presidents or judges reassigned at random to courts each year, and at random to cases, other officials other than jurors assigned to courts for up to four years, and trial jurors selected at random to each case.

The judicial decisions in every court of the Greenway and of every state shall be made under the common law terms and rules of due process and construction in effect in the Greenway that do not conflict with this Constitution or statutes enacted within its authority.

Intervenors in cases who argue in defense of the Constitution shall not be excluded or impeded, in trial or appeal, in the courtroom or outside it, or in presenting legal arguments to juries.

Any multimember judicial panel must be unanimous to sustain a claimed power of government against the claim of a citizen that the government lacks such power. If there is any doubt concerning whether an official has a delegated power, the presumption shall be that he does not. Courts shall not defer to the judgment of legislative or executive officials, but shall require strict proof of their findings or authority, with a presumption of nonauthority.

Opinions of all courts, majority, concurring, or dissenting, shall be signed by each judicial officer participating, and all decisions and opinions shall be published except for state secrets. The summary, findings, orders, and commentary shall be clearly separated and labeled as such.

The Judicial power of the Greenway shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the Greenway by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

No governmental Representative shall be precluded from taking part in any legislative vote by virtue of being detained prior to his or her trial; no judge of any Court of the Greenway shall be detained on suspicion of any criminal offence unless with an express consent of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, or if unable to reach or incapacitated, any other Justice of the Supreme Court.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment; shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

A crime, whether under the laws of the Greenway or a State, shall be considered to have been committed at the point in space and time where mens rea and actus reus concur, not where the harm is caused. Territorial jurisdiction for treason, piracy, and offenses against the law of nations is not confined to the territory of the Greenway, but personal jurisdiction for treason is confined to Greenway citizens.

No federal nor the state official shall, without presentation of a warrant demand the identification of any person or be quartered or be allowed admittance in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war or declared emergency, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, papers, homes [and], effects, and electronic communications and data, from unreasonable searches, seizures, and storage; and no warrant to search any place, or seize any person or thing, or access electronic data or communication, shall issue without particularly describing the place to be searched, or the person or thing to be seized or put under surveillance, or the data or communication to be accessed, as nearly as may be; nor without probable cause, supported by written oath or affirmation.

No information persued in an investigation or otherwise obtained under a warrant, may request access to and/or search and scan and/or seize, the nueral pathways; which include but are not limited to the biological or electronic brain and nueronal aparatus of an individual; No warrant may be issued requesting to search and seize or otherwise request access to a nueronet or Artificial Intelligence directly trained by headgear or nueronal aperatus, nor on account of a True Intelligence residing within a person, whether of biologic or mechologic root, including any intelligence whom the disposition of which is considered to be sapient.

Where evidence is found to be illegally obtained, those who obtained such evidence will be subjected to criminal prosecution.

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the armed forces, when in actual service in time of War or public danger.

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law; in any event, no Person shall be convicted of a criminal offence later than a year after a Warrant permitting the detention of such Person was executed in connection with that offence; should said Person escape or allegedly commit any subsequent criminal offence, a new Warrant for custody may be issued.

In criminal cases, the people shall have the right to the following:
(1) to a speedy and public trial;
(2) to trial by an impartial jury composed of twelve Citizens;
(3) to be informed of nature and cause of the accusation;
(4) to confront witnesses and to compel witnesses to appear in court;
(5) to the assistance of legal counsel free of charge where appropriate;
(6) to be presumed innocent until proven guilty;
(7) not to be compelled to be a witness against himself or herself;
(8) not be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.

No person shall either before or after trial be held incommunicado.

No private warden institution may manage inmates nor open a prisonmate labor camp. Management of inmates and prison institutions are turned over to the individual powers of the states respectively.

The criminal justice system shall practice restoartive justice in criminal justice processes; Practices and programs reflecting restorative purposes will respond to crime by identifying and taking steps to repair harm, involving all stakeholders, and, transforming the relationship between communities and their governments in responding to crime.

The legislation of the several states shall set forth time frames whose periods prescribed consist a statue of limitations where affected parties must take action to enforce rights, seek penalties under law and seek redress after injury or damage.

No law shall retroactively change the legal consequences and/or status of actions that have been already committed, or relationships that already existed, before the enactment of said law.

The claim and exercise of a constitutional right cannot be converted into a crime.

No person shall be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of a penalty.

No person shall be convicted, sentenced, or imprisoned without due process of law.

No person shall be detained without trial for more than twenty-four hours otherwise than in pursuit of a Warrant and no Warrants shall be issued, but upon probable cause, supported by appropriate order and unless it is absolutely necessary for the protection of others, and no detention in pursuit of such a Warrant shall be longer than it is absolutely necessary to bring an accused to trial.

At each level of appeal a case shall first be heard by a randomly selected panel of three, appealable to a randomly selected panel of nine, and thence appealable to either a randomly selected or en banc panel of twenty-seven, depending on the number of judges assigned to that court.

When an individual is in under medical hold, being detained, or held prisoner, cannot afford an attourney, one will be appointed for them by the court, and they may choose to be forwarded to an alternative court appointed legal council for alternative opinion and course of legal action or to submit a case of appeal.

In all suits of law, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the Greenway, than according to the rules of the common law.

In all trials in which there are mixed questions of law and fact, including all criminal jury trials, and all jury trials in which government officials or agents, whether general, state, or local, shall be a party, parties shall have the right not to have decisions by the bench on questions of law made before all arguments can be made before the jury, excepting only arguments on defense motions in limine that cannot be made without disclosing evidence properly excluded. Jurors shall receive copies of all applicable constitutions, statutes, court precedents, and legal arguments, including those of intervenors and amici curiae, and access to an adequate law library in which they can do research.

Any question of which court, national, state, or local, shall have jurisdiction, shall be decided by a grand jury of citizens selected at random, if possible, from outside the jurisdictions of the courts in contention.

No person shall be unreasonably impeded from access to a randomly selected grand jury of 24, who, if they should return an indictment or presentment, may appoint that person or any other to prosecute the case, and shall decide which court, if any, has jurisdiction, and whether any person shall have official immunity from suit.

A person who has been arrested, detained, imprisoned, tried, or sentenced either illegally or in error or contrary to law or the Constitution shall have the right to fair compensation for the whole period of incarceration; all Persons placed under a valid arrest who have their charges subsequently dropped or dismissed at a Preliminary Hearing shall have the right to fair compensation for any and all days spent incarcerated from the twenty-fifth hour of detention onwards; such compensation shall be paid by the Secretariat of the Judiciary; Persons wrongfully convicted shall have a separate right to fair compensation as prescribed by law. Any detention, imprisonment, or sentence, tried and/or held illegally, will result in the pubic official being punished.

Excessive bail and/or fines shall not be required or excessive terms of incarceration, excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted; nor shall the Criminal Court sentence a defendant who has been convicted of a criminal offence to prolonged incarceration should such offence alone have inflicted no harm on any Person.

All defendants in criminal proceedings shall have the right to attend Court proceedings, to be informed of criminal charges and of his or her rights, to compel witnesses to appear in Court for examination, and to examine all evidence gathered against him or her, including any information which has been classified as a state secret should the Prosecution wish to employ such evidence; in such cases, the proceedings shall take place in camera and all Persons involved shall take an oath of secrecy for the period the relevant information remains classified.

All defendants in criminal proceedings shall have the right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty and to not be compelled to be a witness against himself or herself, or such other Persons as may be prescribed by law, without any negative inference; the Prosecution shall at all times carry the legal burden of proof, discharged beyond reasonable doubt, in relation to the defendant's guilt, including disproving any defence envisaged by the law which he or she might raise; nothing in this provision shall prevent the creation of defences which require the defendant to discharge the evidential burden of proof by raising the issue of defence available to him or her.

All Persons held against their will by the Public Administration under any circumstances whatsoever shall have the right to be assisted by effective legal counsel and an interpreter, should they not speak the language of interrogation or court proceedings, and in case of trial, to have reasonable time for the preparation of their case; services of a counsel and an interpreter shall be contracted personally or, in criminal proceedings where a Person is not able to afford it, they shall be provided by the Secretary of the Judiciary with the possibility to subsequently recover reasonable expenses should a defendant be convicted and the verdict not be overturned by the Supreme Court.

No torture or cruel or degrading treatment shall be inflicted by any Agent or Member of the Public Administration or under the supervision or approval thereof against any Person; nor shall any Person be rendered to any state or group should there be a reasonable suspicion that the aforementioned may inflict such treatment on such Person; nor shall any experiments, medical or otherwise, be conducted against any Person without his or her express and informed consent; no Individual shall be medically examined or otherwise tested unless pursuant to a Warrant or with the Individual's express and informed consent.

No Agent of the Public Administration shall operate undercover without a Warrant, and such Warrant shall specify the purposes for which it was issued; no Agent whilst executing a Warrant shall exceed the scope of the authority expressly granted therein, nor shall any Agent acting undercover use any method of entrapment to obtain evidence incriminating any Person; once the function for which the Warrant was issued has been carried into effect or abandoned, the Agent shall disclose to the Court issuing the Warrant a full report of all actions undertaken and evidence gathered whilst acting undercover; no evidence obtained pursuant to a Warrant permitting an Agent to act undercover shall be admissible against any Person unless the aforementioned report and all evidence is disclosed to that Person and to the Court.

All Warrants for the purposes of criminal proceedings, other than the Supreme Warrant, shall be issued by a Judge of the Criminal Court upon request by an Agent of Law Enforcement and shall be supported by evidence of probable cause; such Warrants shall be as detailed as possible and shall refer to one Person only; every Warrant granted for a continuous action shall expire no later than after six months and may only be renewed by another Judge in accordance with ordinary procedure; any Person subject to a Warrant shall be informed without delay of its execution or, in case of a Warrant for a continuous action, once such Warrant has expired and is not renewed.

Agents of Law Enforcement executing arrests shall act openly and shall inform the detainee about the relevant rights he or she enjoys under this Constitution and any laws passed in accordance therewith; where a Person is placed under arrest, Agents of Law Enforcement shall immediately inform his or her close ones as prescribed by law about the detention.

Public officials may not lie to a person, they may only provide defacto legal advice or reccomendations in consistancy with their constitutional oath and the law of the land. A member of the public may not make false statements to a person.

No law shall prohibit video and/or audio recording where there is no reasonable expectation of privacy, including Agents of the Public Administration; nothing in this provision shall be construed as to allow for general surveillance by the Public Administration.

Officers of the law, while on active duty, such as issuing and executing a warrant or placeing an arrest, will need to wear a removeably affixed body mounted camera, when available, and there shall be a microphone present as well, which will record audio and video simultaniously and never be turned off while they are required; nothing in this provision shall be construed as to allow for general surveillance by the Public Administration.

Officers of the law and their sworn statements may be placed under review to correlate any information that they may provide and within validation of their statements, collaborated with the officers on duty, the sheriff station or prison video feed, and such footage of the prisoners under the custodial authority; Any public official interupting or otherwise tampering with the video footage evidence including any live feed, is guilty of a felony punishable by no less than five years and to be fined under this title; Members of the public may have the footage turned over to them for review when a petition is filed through freedom of information or a judge order grants the public non-classified information; Release of video and audio feeds will be provided to attourneys at request; There shall be made available to the people a publicly available internet archive of all the calls and footage released under this title; nothing in this provision shall be construed as to allow for general surveillance by the Public Administration.

No Person shall be detained or interrogated by any Agent of the Public Administration outside the jurisdiction of the Greenway.

All Persons held by any Agent or any body of the Public Administration against their will under any circumstances whatsoever shall have the right to petition the Criminal Court for a writ of habeas corpus.

All Persons arrested in error or contrary to law or the Constitution shall have the right to fair compensation for the whole period of incarceration; all Persons placed under a valid arrest who have their charges subsequently dropped or dismissed at a Preliminary Hearing shall have the right to fair compensation for any and all days spent incarcerated from the twenty-fifth hour of detention onwards; such compensation shall be paid by the Secretariat of the Judiciary; Persons wrongfully convicted shall have a separate right to fair compensation as prescribed by law.

The ability of an inmate to communicate to a lawyer, petition, and the right to vote shall not be infringed.

when a person is no longer being detained, they become an ex prisoner, or, they are no longer an inmate, then, the individual is to be released, from either that of legal custody, a county jail, prison, or other penal institution of the Greenway and the several states, and it shall be the duty of the sheriff and their deputies to prepare the inmate for release, where the inmate will be permitted to eat the last available of the day's meals provided [through the sheriffs station or from the kitchen of the penetentiary] before leaving or be discharged immediately, and at discharge of the individual from custody, that, to be included amoung their personal belongings, wages of labors performed, and discharge forms, the person being released shall be provided with either a pistol, shotgun, or a rifle, with a quantity of ammunitions suitable for three days of peacable journey amoung the trails and public ways to their home or other destination, and be supplied with three days rations. The sheriff shall pay over to a citizen who has been released from the county jail or state prison, which sum shall be assembled in silver and copper coin/s and/or bar/s, [and], greenbacks and/or cannabis, which furthermore then shall be released to the individual being discharged, and shall also be provided with a suitable means of transportation, by providing the full amount for three days worth of supplies and either carriage, locomotive, automobile, or other vehicular transit fare, as well as for supplies, to peacably journey amoung the trails and public ways to their home or other destination. When they are released, it shall be communicated to them, from either the sheriff or through authorization granted by the sheriff to the deputies of the county, through speech or other appropirate means to them once they are relased, these words, "you are free to go and may forever more be free".

Convicted criminals shall not have their liberty restricted except so far as is necessary for the protection of others, nor their property seized except so far as it is necessary to make restitution to the victim and/or to pay the costs of the criminal's capture and trial.

A person who has been arrested, detained, imprisoned, tried, or sentenced either illegally or in error shall receive fair restitution.

In fairness and equality of employability, potential workers and employees will not have to indicate on their employment forms any previous criminal charges nor have a backround check be a legal requirement by their employer.

To protect the right to privacy, anonymity in public, and liberty of the people, there shall be no neighborhood watch, as such can become Cause Stalking or Gangstalking, furthermore such neighborhood watch goes against the right to privacy, as well that no one can be accused without knowing the accusation and the accuser before him/her, while nieghborhood watching implies a person's guilt before proving their innocence.

No Person shall have his or her privacy violated by freezing of assets, searches, seizures, surveillance, accessing and gathering of his or her private personal information without his or her express and informed consent, including obtaining it from third parties and/or using digital means, unless pursuant to a Warrant, and only to the extent which is necessary to achieve the purpose for which the Warrant was issued and particularly describing the assets to be frozen, the places or Persons to be searched, the things or Persons to be seized, the Persons to be put under surveillance, including the maximum period of that surveillance, and the data to be obtained and stored, including the period for which it may be retained; nothing in this provision shall prevent the collection of information which has been made available to the public or shared voluntarily.

The people shall be secure against general and pervasive surveillance in private and public places, whether done by government or private actors, that has a chilling effect on their private and civic activities, without specific public court orders pursuant to acts of Congress for national security.

No soldier shall be inlisted for any longer term than four years, except in time of war, and then for no longer term than the continuance of the war.

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

All Members and Agents of the Public Administration knowingly or negligently acting in breach of the Constitution by failing to fulfil any obligation which may be directly imposed on them by the Constitution, or by denying any Person any right which may be bestowed on such a Person by the Constitution, shall be deemed to be committing a criminal offence punishable with incarceration for a term not exceeding three years and/or with any other punishment which the Congress may determine in the Criminal Code.

Whoever, except in cases and under circumstances expressly authorized by the Constitution or Act of Congress, willfully uses any part of the Armed Forces as a posse comitatus or otherwise to execute the laws is guilty of committing a felony and shall be imprisoned not less than five years and fined under this article; and shall be incapable of holding any office under the Greenway.

A member of the sheriff's force, militia, member of the armed forces, or whomever a member of the public body, except in cases and under circumstances expressly authorized by the Constitution or Act of Congress, willfully uses who uses overwheliming force including but not limited to using lethal force or firing before being fired upon, shall be a violation in the rules of engagement, and they are convicted of the same, as in the Rules of Engagement and Law of Armed Conflict put forth by congress through the regulation of the militia, they shall be guilty of a felony punishable by no less than ten years improsonment and fined under this article.

All Members and Agents of the Public Administration convicted of the criminal offence of acting in breach of the Constitution or of any law relevant to the position held shall cease to hold their current positions and shall no longer be eligible to hold any public office or to be employed by the Public Administration.

No torture and/or other cruel, unusual, or degrading treatment shall be inflicted by any member of any branch of the Public Administration or with consent and/or knowledge thereof; no person shall be subjected to experiments of any sort without his or her consent.

The law of trusts as of the date of ratification of this Constitution is hereby recognized as part of the common law that preceded this Constitution and was incorporated into it. The settlor, trustee, beneficiary, and the trust itself shall each be deemed as distinct persons in any court of law of the Greenway and any State, the trust represented therein by the trustee.

SECTION. 3.

Treason against the Greenway, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort, or the passing/ratification of any bill without reading fully in every word before which it shall have passed. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act on Confession in open Court.

A person shall not be determined to be an unprivileged enemy belligerent or be detained without trial by an impartial jury; no individual may be detained under criminal charges without trial by impartial jury for the articles Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War Hostilities determined as individuals against the Greenway or its coalition partners in which an individual has engaged, or which the individual has purposely and materially supported, are subjects consistent with the law of war and any authorization for the use of military force provided by Congress pertaining to such hostilities.

No person shall be convicted of an illegal disclosure of classified information if that piece of information proves or could be reasonably believed to be proving that any member of any branch of the Public Administration has breached, remains in breach or intends to breach the law.

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

ARTICLE IV

SECTION. 1.

Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

That each State in the Union shall respectively retain every power, jurisdiction and right which is not by this Constitution delegated to the Congress of the Greenway or to the departments of the Foederal [sic] Government.

For purposes of representation in the Congress, election of the President and Vice President, and article VI of this Constitution, the District constituting the seat of government of the Greenway shall be treated as though it were a State. The exercise of the rights and powers conferred under this article shall be by the people of the District constituting the seat of government, and as shall be provided by the Congress.

No State shall make any law respecting an establishment of spirituality/religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; and no money raised by taxation in any State for the support of public schools, or derived from any public fund therefore, nor any public lands devoted thereto, shall ever be under the control of any religious sect, nor shall any money so raised or lands so devoted be divided between religious sects or denominations.

The several states of the Greenway will each establish a Department of Agriculture as well as a Food and Drug Administration and an Environmental Protection Agency, to maintain their responsibilities to the people regarding the articles proscribing their duties of certifying and ensuring the purity of food and drugs as well duties through the environmental protection agencies of the several states in protecting the rights of nature and the habitability of earth.

The states of Greenway will each establish an aeronautic agency which will manage public resources of aerospace and grant commercial licenses regarding aerospace upon request after review. It shall be under the authority of the people to grant or limit the use of such technology or regulations implemented for the government, and [and] No government agent deploy such technology except as needed to properly execute the laws of the union. The use of blackboxes by the government are strictly prohibited. The right of natural persons to develop and/or operate their technologies and travel the public ways of aerospace and the [legal_terranullius] way of outerspace shall not be obstructed nor retarded or rescinded, neither any article interacrive to this one be obscrued in such a way as to impact the ability of a person coming and going as they decide in their own private manner. The right of people to establish private aerospace and outerspace services is garaunteed.

Each State respectively shall have the power to provide for organizing, arming and disciplining it's own Militia, whensoever Congress shall omit or neglect to provide for the same. That the Militia shall not be subject to Martial law, except when in actual Greenway, shall be subject only to such fines, penalties and punishments as shall be directed or inflicted by the laws of its own State.

SECTION. 2.

The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the Greenway or by any State on account of race, sexual indication, sexual preference, status of marriage, or medical disability. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

The natural right of a person to be naked in view of or within a public or private place shall be upheld. A person commits an act of public indecency if while in, or in view of, a public place the person performs a sexual act or exposes oneself with intent of arousing the sexual desire of the person or another person.

No law shall restrict the free movement of any Individual within the Greenway; all Individuals shall have the right to reside in any part of the Greenway.

Citizens have the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.

Everyone has the right to leave any country, including one's own, and to return to one's country.

The right of the citizen to travel upon the public ways, international ways, and legal terranullius, of the sea/waterway, land, areospace, or outerspace, and to transport their property thereon, either by boat, horse, carriage, automobile or other vehicle, is not a mere privilege which may be prohibited or permitted at will, but a common right which they have under the right to life, privacy, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The legislature has no power to deny to a citizen the right to travel upon the public way and transport their property in the ordinary course of their inclination or pleasure.

It is the duty of a legal guardian to raise their child to the age of majority; A person who is at least sixteen years of age may submit to the state court an entry for their judgement of emancipation.

Persons sixteen years of age or older may register in the armed forces, but shall not see combat until at least eighteen years of age.

Congress shall have power to limit, regulate, and prohibit the labor of persons under eighteen years of age. The power of the several States is unimpaired by this article except that the operation of State laws shall be suspended to the extent necessary to give effect to legislation enacted by the Congress.

Citizens who seek to perform labor shall be granted an equal opportunity for employment and are ensured the right to wages at fair compensation.

People have the right to petition a government official as well as vote to have them be removed from their position.

The right of citizens of Greenway who are the age eighteen or older to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the Free country Greenway or any State by the account of sex, race, color, previous condition of servitude, or through reason of failure to pay poll tax or other tax. The right to vote and participate in elections shall not be infringed.

All votes of the people shall be by popular vote directly cast into a Ranked Choice Voting system, also known as Instant Runoff and FairVote, with a two-round system which shall consist of primary and alternative votes, wherein majority rules; In the case of unmarked ballots or ballots where indications for selection have been unmarked shall not construe representation of votes which may or not have been cast.

Considering the age of consent, it shall be from birth on upwards to fourteen where within two years and one day shall sexual contact between two youth be legally accepted as consensual. From the of age fourteen and upwards, it shall be within 4 years and one day for legally accepted consensual act of sex with another youth in their age range, and for non-penatrative or non-genitalia based sexual contact it shall be within eight years and one day for mutally consenting sexual relations to be legally accepted. From the age of sixteen and upwards, it shall be within eight years and one day of mutually consenting partners to engage in an act of sex and have it be legally accepted sexual contact. From the age of eighteen upwards, the rights consenting adults shall be upheld. These ages of consent are to be upheld in regard to regulations regarding human sexual activity amoung youth, so long as it occurs without provocation or molestation by another who is above the legal consensual age ranges and/or is not otherwise non-consensual, including but not limited to an act of predatory sexual assault or rape. Rights are reserved to the people to consent to eachother in a sexual nature.

No law shall abridge the right of persons to the control of their own bodies, nor interfere with voluntary consensual or contractual relations among adult persons, or the right to form cooperative ventures of any kind. No law shall establish and/or regulate the institution of marriage.

A plantiff who makes false statements to an official or otherwise manufactures charges in regard to an alleged case of non-consensual sexual contact shall be held criminally liable and the defendent shall be eligable for the charges against them to be pardoned and/or expunged. The legislature of the several states shall define the penalties of consensual age violation and crimes of sex.

People have the right to be in control of their own body and to know the origin or source, processes by which they are elaborated and rendered, constituents, safety or health effects, or environmental impact of the products they consume or come in contact with, including, but not limited to, food, drugs, cosmetics and household chemicals or similar products. It shall be the duty of the states, within the Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration, as well as any other department or agency appointed through legislature by the several states to regulate, enforce, and fulfill duties of ensuring the purity of commercial food and drug products, labeling of certain household products, batch identification and genome sequencing of genetically modified organisms, and to provide official certifications for products such as their being environmentally friendly, organic, renewable or sustainable as well as any other duties assigned by the legislature. The right of individualts to establish private certification services is garaunteed.

No consciousness controlling transceiver, mindwave monitoring or alteration technology, psychotronic, bioelectric interface, nor bio-feedback or interuptive device, may ever be operated on any person unless under the un-coereced non-compulsed informed consent of an individual who is seeking personal therapy, in course of medical treatment, or other purpose constituting fair use of the technology in regards to the individual person's persuit of life, privacy, liberty, and happyness, nor shall any such purpose be construed for the deployment by a member of the public body, branch of public office, government hired contractor, or private investigator on any of the people residing or migrating within the territories of Greenway, within a governmental facility or any juridictional fort or installation irregardless if there is probable cause or a warrant issued.

The people have a right to treat their own illnesses and to abstain from medical treatment. People have the right to free from electro-shock therapy or other unduly hazadrous procedures. You may choose to be forwarded to another caretaker of your choice if necessary for alternative opinion and course of treatment.

Free health care is guaranteed for all sectors of the population to state public health services. The right to establish private health services is guaranteed.

Patients with a qualifying medical condition may be allowed access any medical treatment with the discretion of a physician to prescribe it; "qualifying medical condition" means any condition for which medical treatment would be beneficial, as determined by the patients physician.

All Individuals shall have the right to control their own bodies; no Individual shall be subjected to any medical treatment without his or her express and informed consent absent exigent circumstances where an Individual is incapable of consenting; should life-saving experimental treatment become available at the time a Person is incapable of giving his or her consent, the doctors shall be allowed to apply to the Civil Court for the permission to conduct such treatment.

Individuals may not be placed under medical hold for periods of time exceeding beyond seventy-two hours without consent from the either the parent, legal guardian, or through a custodian appointed by the judiciary in due process through the court of law.

A woman's right to an abortion permits a woman to terminate her pregnancy for any reason during the first trimester. The power to regulate the circumstances under which pregnancy may be terminated after the first trimester is reserved to the states.

A persons body , organs, and genetics are their own, and no medical treatment or prescription issued, through implantation, or through other means integrated into the person, that when [bartered] through either by partial-payment, credit, or other procedure which has procured a debtor, may ever be repossesed, whether by any debtor or contractual repossesion of lease, nor through any other means otherwise occur, though this provision shall not affect the legal aquisition of cadavers, organs, or genetics though their donor.

Cannabalism is the defilement of a persons flesh and body for the purpose of butchering, cooking, and/or eating. Any person who wilfully ingests the flesh or blood of a human being is guilty of cannibalism. It shall be an affirmative defense to a violation of the provisions of this section that the action was taken under extreme life-threatening conditions as the only apparent means of survival. It is otherwise illegal to consume a primate such as a human or an otherwise sapien's flesh, even if the victim died of natural causes. A dead person is considerd organic medical waste and must be dispoed of in a sanitary manner. Cannibalism is punishable by imprisonment in state prison not exceeding fourteen years.

No person may be cloned nor genetically modified unless the procedure has been found suitable through open scientific research reviewed and audited by the people, through individually authorized queries for the research and/or regulations to be reviewed and/or audited, and such specific research to take place shall be intiated through a referandum of the people, which referandum will furthermre require a vote cast by the people for authorizing the specific the research and regulation to then be regulated under the legislature of congress and the several states, regarding the pursuit of medical treatment in illness, disease, or infertility of a person, [and] only through the un-coerced, non-compulsed, and informed consent granted of parties involved. If an infraction of this provision occurs, victims are provided protection under this constitution. This article is to be upheld and maintained through congress and the several states.

Wherever occurring in their natural state, fish, wildlife, and waters are reserved to the people for common use. The privately owned lands and their resources belong to the property owner and are not subject to requisition or appropriation.

The manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating substances within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the Greenway and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for consumption purposes is are legal for use by citizens who are eighteen or older; This includes the organic parent sources, raw or dry material or preparations thereof and also the extracts of any drug related compounds found within living organisms. Personal use of substances controlled by the Food and Drug Administration without a license are not unlawful and shall not be an offense. Personal use of substances includes but is not limited to; Possessing, using or consuming, displaying, purchasing, or transporting drug accessories or personal amounts of controlled substances; Possessing, growing, processing, or transporting personal amounts of drug producing plants, and possession of the drugs produced by the plants; Transfer of personal amounts of drugs without remuneration to a person who is eighteen or older; Assisting another person who is eighteen or older in any way described as personal use of controlled substances. The manufacture, sale, or transportation of drug related natural or synthetic compounds are to be regulated by the Food and Drug Administration, who by request and review, grant and administer commercial licences from applications received for a controlled chemical licence. The several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Any person owning or controlling real estate or other premises who voluntarily damages or destroys a drone, [reconnicance]-satellite, or other robotic device located on the real estate or premises, on the land or with in the airspace of the premises not otherwise regulated by the aerospace agencies of the several states, shall, together with any successors in interest, if any, not be civilly or criminally liable for causing the damage or destruction to the property of such person, shall, together with any successors in interest, if any, not be civilly liable for causing the damage or destruction to the property of such person.

No government agency or member of the public body may deploy drones or other robotic surveilance or weaponized equipment on citizens, also, the members of the public office or agency of government may not deploy drones or other automated devices, except in the case of state resuers in search and rescue missions; Drones, robots, or other related automated devices, may not be used to execute the laws of the union.

As a part of common legal principles, codified Cesidian law shall be recognized in legislation regarding electronic systems.

People have a right to freely use the common electromagnetic spectrum and to operate their equipment thereon within the public or private domain; This includes but is not limited to use, experimentation, and/or operation of oscilloscope, signal generator, broadcasting or communication equipment, radio scanner, spectrum analyzer, RF imager, scientific experiment, tranceiver or transmission array, particle accelerator, lamdaser or electrolaser, electrodynamic craft, astrodynamic energy system, or other related device; The legislature has no power to deny to a citizen the right to use the electromagnetic spectrum in public or private domain and operate their equipment in the ordinary course of their inclination or pleasure, [and] No government agent deploy such technology except as needed to properly execute the laws of the union, which trust shall be under the authority of the people to grant or limit the use of such technology by the government. The use of blackboxes by the government are strictly prohibited.

It shall be a privledge of the people of the several states to decide on whether or not they want to establish a state communications commission, to provide for the people television and radio programmes, such as digital tellevision and satelite radio, as well as a phone line and internet connection, such as voip/dsl, and they may also have available for the people access to a smartphone/internet connection including but not limited to being available through gsm/wimax, as well as the modem/phone provided for the citizens to keep, on opensource openWRT, openBTS, and OpenWiMAX devices, using the money of the taxpayers to provide such, through the methods and rules establishd under the will of the people, in the legislature of the several states. The right of people to establish private communications, telephone, television, radio and internet services is garaunteed.

All citizens of Greenway are entitled to neutrality and fair access of media and may operate an information system unobstructed. No person shall be subject to circumvention within their right to fair access of accurate information. No powers shall be granted within Congress or the several states that may authorize any institution or operation of which shall attempt to use the powers, resources, or money provided to them to produce or disseminate propaganda, nor shall they transmit or in any other way distribute propaganda to any person within its boarders or abroad.

The Citizens of the Greenway shall have the access to information which relates to any aspect of the functioning of any body of any branch of the Public Administration which is not classified, and no information shall be classified unless it is absolutely necessary for the purposes of national security.

All citizens are entitled to access to State libraries institutions and free education on all levels at State educational institutions. The State shall provide financial assistance to those who distinguish themselves, as well as to students in need of assistance or special protection, in accordance with their abilities. The right to establish private education services is guaranteed.

No law shall regulate any printed materials, radio, television, the Internet or any other medium of exchange of information; no law shall regulate the rules concerning uploading, transmitting, displaying, accessing and/or publishing such information; nor shall any law introduce licensing and/or registration to infringe upon these rights; nothing in this provision shall prevent the congress from protecting the interests of Minors and/or those lacking mental capacity; publishing and/or sharing information classified as state secret or related to the work of Agents of Law Enforcement operating undercover pursuant to a Warrant shall be subject to control as described in this Constitution.

All persons have the right to a presumption of nonauthority. Any person may file, without prior consent of any court, as demandant, in the name of the people, in a court of competent jurisdiction, a writ of quo warranto, habeas corpus, prohibito, mandamus, procedendo, certiorari, scire facias, or other prerogative writ, including a demurral, and upon service of notice to respondent, respondent shall have three days, and not more than 20 days with cause, to prove his authority to do or not do what the writ demands. The writ filed shall be the summons, with no further action needed by the court, which shall not treat the writ as a petition or motion for injunctive relief. The burden of proof shall rest solely on the respondent. The court shall hold a hearing within five days of receipt of the response from the respondent, and ahead of any other business before the court except another prerogative writ. Either demandant or respondent shall have the right to trial by a jury of at least twelve, with twelve required to sustain the claim of authority of the respondent. On a writ of habeas corpus the respondent must produce the individual held regardless of the legal or factual issues, and failure to do so, unless the medical condition of the subject requires otherwise, shall result in immediate release. The order granting the relief demanded shall issue by default if a hearing is not held or a decision not made. Only the Supreme Court of the Greenway shall have jurisdiction to decide a writ of quo warranto, upon impeachment, to remove from office for perjury of oath, fraud, or ineligibility, or restrict the exercise of power, of the President or Vice-president, a member of Congress, or a judge of the Greenway, but any Greenway court of general jurisdiction shall have jurisdiction for lesser officials, subject to appeal to higher courts, and the President and Vice President shall have the right to a verdict by a jury composed of two adult citizens selected at random from each state

All private personal data collected by the Public Administration shall be used only for the purposes for which they were collected, shall be kept confidential and shared only with the express and informed consent of the all Persons to whom it relates, unless sharing such information is necessary for the performance of duties provided for under this Constitution; all Individuals whose data are stored by any body of the Public Administration other than Law Enforcement shall be entitled to obtain a copy of such data and require that they be destroyed if the purposes for which they were collected no longer apply; nothing in this provision shall prevent the Public Administration from storing data of Agents and Members of the Public Administration and any other legal or natural Person contracting therewith.

No law shall establish the institution of slavery, conscription, indenture, or any other form of involuntary servitude other than the Jury duty, within Greenway, or in any place subject to its jurisdiction. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. Rights are insured to the people to wear body armor and bear a diversity of arms in all variations, whether black powder fired or otherwise, in times of war or peace.

That the people have a right to keep and bear arms; that a well regulated Militia composed of the body of the people trained to arms is the proper, natural and safe defence of a free State. That standing armies in time of peace are dangerous to liberty, and therefore ought to be avoided, as far as the circumstances and protection of the Community will admit; and that in all cases the military should be under strict subordination to and governed by the Civil power.

The primary meaning of "militia" shall be "defense activity", and only secondarily those engaged in it, or obligated to engage in it. All citizens and would-be citizens have the legal duty to defend the constitutions of the Greenway and their state, and the members of society, from any threat to their rights, privileges, or immunities, in response to a call-up by any person aware of a credible threat. Any call-up that does not require everyone to respond shall select those required by sortition. Jury duty shall be regarded as a form of militia duty. Militia may not be kept in a called up status beyond the duration of an emergency. Congress and state legislatures shall have the power to enforce this duty by appropriate legislation.

Militia shall be maintained in a state of readiness sufficient to overcome any regular military force it might encounter. Those who may engage in militia shall have any weapons in common use by regular military, subject only to the directives of local elected unit commanders during operations while called up. If Congress or any state or local legislative body shall fail to provide for organizing, training, or equipping militia units, persons shall not be impeded from organizing, training, and equipping themselves independently.

There shall be no federal or state registry nor shall a permit or backround check be a requirement, nor any regulations be enacted limiting the freedom of the people, to manufacture, purchase, sell, or otherwise own any armaments, or body armor, nor shall any law obstruct a person from their constitutional right to bear arms.

No law shall abridge the right of self-defense against initiators of aggression, including the agents of the Public Administration where acting unlawfully, including the right, to own, manufacture, sell, and bear arms.

All Persons shall have the right of self-defence and/or defence of their property and constitutional Rights, and others who are under a direct and real threat, against initiators of aggression, including any Agent of the Public Administration acting unlawfully or in error; no Person shall be convicted of any criminal offence for any act or omission which took place on his or her property and which is a direct response to another Person trespassing on that property and acting in breach of the law or the Constitution resulting in such threat as described in this provision.

It is proper for law-abiding people to protect themselves, their families and others from intruders and attackers without fear of prosecution or civil action for acting in defense of themselves and others. A person is justified in using physical force upon another person to defend himself from what he reasonably believes to be the use or imminent use of unlawful physical force. In defending, a person may only use that degree of force which they reasonably believe to be necessary. The right of the people to bear arms in defense of themselves and the State shall not be questioned. The Castle Doctrine is a common law doctrine of ancient origins which declares that a home is a person’s castle. Persons residing in or visiting this Commonwealth have a right to expect to remain unmolested on or within their land, homes, or vehicles. No person should be required to surrender his or her personal safety to a criminal, nor should a person be required to needlessly retreat in the face of intrusion or attack outside the person’s dwelling or vehicle.

The federal government will reduce its weapons of mass destruction arsenal by fifty percent every year, and attempt through sincere diplomacy to have other countries to do the same.

The construction or use of Radiological, Nuclear, Biological, or Chemical weapons of mass destruction by the people or their government is hereby prohibited. Congress shall have power, on territory under its exclusive jurisdiction, and state legislatures, on territory under their exclusive jurisdiction, to forbid unsupervised possession of destructive devices or weapons each discharge of which can produce the death or injury of more than 1000 individuals over a space of 1000 square meters and a time of one hour.

No gravitoelectromagnetic drive nor string theorem machine capable of transceiving accross, manipulating, or transversing temporal or spacial distrobutions, nor cross-timeline multiverse browsing device, ever be owned or operated by any governmental agency, office, member of the public body, or government hired contractor of Greenway, on any person, place, or thing, regardless of its purposes in peace or war, jurisdiction, or otherwise. Rights to operate equipment including but not limited to gravitoelectromagnetic drives, string theorem machines, and multiverse browsers are insured to the people.

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which they fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

Legislature and other government officials are prohibited from tampering or repealing laws created by the voters without further requiring three-fourths vote from a citizens referendum to amend measure, to supersede measure, or to transfer funds designated by the measure, and only if each furthers the purpose of the measure.

In this Constitution all rights are immunities against the action of government officials, not entitlements to receive some service or benefit. Every immunity is a restriction on delegated powers, and every delegated power is a restriction on immunities. Delegated powers and immunities partition the space of public action. The exercise of a right is not subject to regulation, except to allocate use of a scarce resource, or to taxation, and only to insignificant incidental burdens by government actions at any level, unless there is an explicit exception to the contrary, in this Constitution.

SECTION. 3.

New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the Greenway; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the Greenway, or of any particular State.

SECTION. 4.

The Greenway shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

ARTICLE V

We the people of Greenway declare:

We the people recognize that our communities are under siege from the corporations that cause economic, cultural, environmental, and public harm;

We the people recognize our confinement in a system of laws that grants greater rights to corporations than to residents of our communities;

We the people recognize that this system grants corporate minorities the legal authority to override the community majority right to choose that which secures its health, safety, and wellfare;

We the people recognize that the legal system has conferred unequal power on the basis of property ownership so that those holding the most property obtain and wield superior rights;

We the people recognize that this system of law hinders and obstructs our ability to adapt to economic, cultural, and environmental change;

We the people recognize that corporate control of legislation and governance denies our right to an authentically democratic local, state, and federal representation necessary to protect our communities from corporate harms;

We the people recognize that our health, safety, welfare, and survival of our local businesses, farms, ecosystems, and neighborhoods depend on restructuring the current system of governance, because it favors corporations over community-based, democratic decision-making;

We the people recognize that, because a republic means "governance of, by, and for the people" and "consent of the governed", a republic shall exist in our communities, states, or within the Greenway;

Therefore, we now exercise our inherent and inalienable right to create an authentic republic in our communities, municipalities, and counties within our States; and We the People call on communities across the states of Greenway to:

Enact local laws and adopt charter amendments that recognize community rights for residents of the states and preserve the inherent rights of natural ecosystems to exist and flourish;

Include in those local laws and charter amendments direct challenges to the system of laws and legal doctrines that secure greater rights for corporations than for residents of our communities or natural ecosystems;

Build a statewide network of local rights-asserting communities involved in changing our legislature to incorporate the inherent self-governing authority of the people;

Join together with other state community rights networks in and all other states demanding changes to the federal Constitution that will elevate the rights of people, communities, and nature above the illegitimate "rights" of corporations and the governing authorities they control.

Persons, communities, peoples, and nations are bearers of rights and shall enjoy the rights guaranteed to them in the Constitution and in international instruments. Nature shall be the subject of those rights that the Constitution recognizes for it.

Nature, or Pacha Mama, where life is reproduced and occurs, has the right to integral respect for its existence and for the maintenance and regeneration of its life cycles, structure, functions and evolutionary processes. All persons, communities, peoples and nations can call upon public authorities to enforce the rights of nature. To enforce and interpret these rights, the principles set forth in the Constitution shall be observed, as appropriate. The States shall give incentives to natural persons and legal entities and to communities to protect nature and to promote respect for all the elements comprising an ecosystem.

Nature has the right to be restored. This restoration shall be apart from the obligation of the States and natural persons or legal entities to compensate individuals and communities that depend on affected natural systems. In those cases of severe or permanent environmental impact, including those caused by the exploitation of nonrenewable natural resources, the States shall establish the most effective mechanisms to achieve the restoration and shall adopt adequate measures to eliminate or mitigate harmful environmental consequences.

The protection of the environment is of general interest. Persons must abstain from any act that causes grave depredation, destruction or contamination to the environment. The legislation of the several states shall regulate this provision and may provide sanctions for transgressors.

The States shall apply preventive and restrictive measures on activities that might lead to the extinction of species, the destruction of ecosystems and the permanent alteration of natural cycles. The introduction of organisms and organic and inorganic material that might definitively alter the nation's genetic assets is forbidden.

No exploitation shall take place regarding the resources of earth in attempt to procure rare earth petrol-chemicals or minerals whose contributing constituents are sourced from geological reserves and considered fossil fuel, nor may such compounds be used or consumed within the territories of Greenway by public or private persons nor within trade by embargoes taking place within the territories of Greenway. In exclusion to the ban on petrol chemicals are synthetic petrol analogues considered the product of material manufacturing from renewable sources including but not limited to bio-fuel, syngas hydrocarbon cracking, production in fuel reformer or catalyst, or within assumption that source whose material contribution have not caused infraction to the petrol mineral ban. Congress and the several states who shall set forth such rules as are to be enforced through authorization granted to the state Environmental Protection Agency. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

No person shall import, manufacture, stockpile, trade, supply, distribute or sell any scheduled plastic product which is non-degradable. The scheduled plastic products must be oxo-degradable or bio-degradeable plastics and the pro-degradant used must be approved by the state Environmental Protection Agency and in such manner as prescribed. Recycled scheduled plastic products shall be marked "Recycled plastic, unsafe for contact with food". Plastics that are not scheduled shall be compostable bio-plastics without the addition of pigments or extenders, and any pigment or extender added shall be scheduled according the rules established through legislation of Congress and the several states who shall set forth such rules as are to be enforced through authorization granted to the Food and Drug Administration as well the Environmental Protection Agency. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Persons, communities, peoples, and nations shall have the right to benefit from the environment and the natural wealth enabling them to enjoy the good way of living. Environmental services shall not be subject to appropriation; their production, delivery, use and development shall be regulated by the States.

Persons, communities, peoples, nations and communities are bearers of rights and shall enjoy the rights guaranteed to them in the Constitution and in international instruments. Nature shall be the subject of those rights that the Constitution recognizes for it.

ARTICLE VI

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the (insert correct date); and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate. A Constitutional Bill proposing an Amendment to this Constitution shall be subject to the power of general veto by the Citizens as expressed in the referendum.

ARTICLE VII

All debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the Free country Greenway under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

The validity of the public debt of the Free country Greenway, government-invested-power, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the Greenway nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the Greenway, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the Greenway which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the Greenway, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

No legislative act or provision thereof shall have the force of law unless the constitutional authority for it is explicitly cited, verifiable by proving an unbroken chain of logical derivation.

A provision of a treaty or other international agreement not made in pursuance of this Constitution shall have no force or effect.

A treaty or other international agreement shall have legislative effect within the Greenway as a law thereof only through legislation, except to the extent that the Senate shall provide affirmatively, in its resolution advising and consenting to a treaty, that the treaty shall have legislative effect.

Government shall exercise no power within the territory of the Greenway, based on a treaty, not otherwise delegated to it by this Constitution, other than powers to administer trust territories or protectorates.

An international agreement other than a treaty shall have legislative effect within the Greenway as a law thereof only through legislation valid in the absence of such an international agreement.

On the question of advising and consenting to the ratification of a treaty, the vote shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against shall be entered on the Journal of the Senate.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the Greenway and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; A standardized test of intelligence shall be issued but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the Greenway.

Perjury shall consist of the violation of any oath or affirmation, including that made for public office, and Congress shall have authority to criminally punish it only when made in a forum of the Greenway, or by an officer or agent of the Greenway.

It shall be a capital offense for any official at any level of government to violate this Constitution.

Article VIII

The Ratification of the Conventions by three-fourths of the States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

The enumeration in this Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the Citizens and other residents of the Greenway, which rights are inalienable.

The powers delegated by the Constitution to the government of the Greenway, shall be exercised as therein appropriated, so that the Legislative shall never exercise the powers vested in the Executive or Judicial; nor the Executive the powers vested in the Legislative or Judicial; nor the Judicial the powers vested in the Legislative or Executive.

The powers not delegated to the Greenway by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

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Immunitates Ammendment and Bill of Immunities
http://www.constitution.org/reform/us/immunitates.html


Due process and efficient remediation
General:
Not to be denied due notice of time, place, manner, parties, and subject of any proceeding with sufficient time to respond.

Not to be denied fair hearing and decision on the legal merits, with redress for just grievances, including damages, property, or, injunctive or declaratory relief.

Not to have just remedies made inaccessible or excessively difficult or costly.

Not to be denied mandated testimony of witnesses.

Not to be denied unimpeded access to courts, court filing, and inquestries, subject only to routine scheduling.

Not to be denied direct presentation of complaints to an inquestry without the presence of any other government actor except with the consent of the inquestry.

Not to be denied standing to privately prosecute a public right without having been injured or expecting personal injury.

Not to be subject to retaliation.

Not to have admitted any plea or testimony induced by a plea agreement.

Not to have any real property or chattel taken or forfeited without civil or criminal judgment in a trial, with possession presumed to establish title unless proved otherwise.

Not to have the exercise of any immunity taxed, disabled, or restricted by statute or other rule except to allocate a scarce resource among competing claimants, unless one is a minor, which by default shall be any individual under the age of 18 unless the disabilities of minority are extended or reduced by court order.

Not to have the exercise of any right, privilege, or immunity disabled or restricted without s court order following a jury trial.

Criminal trials:
Not to be denied indictment by twelve members of a randomly selected inquestry of 23 who elect their foreperson, upon a finding that the court has jurisdiction and that there is sufficient evidence for a trial, except for persons subject to military or militia discipline, or foreign praedones.

Not to be denied service as prosecutor upon receipt of an indictment by an inquestry, subject only to consolidation by the inquestry if more than one person seeks to prosecute the same offense.

Not to be denied trial by a randomly selected jury of twelve sworn to uphold applicable constitutions in criminal cases for which the penalty is more than 90 days.

Not to have imposed excessive bail when there is little flight risk.

Not to have imposed excessive fines imposed.

Not to have cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Not to be denied speedy and public trial before an impartial jury of the state and district previously defined by law, wherein the offense shall have been committed, and to have the location of commitment be deemed where there was concurrence of mens rea and actus reus.

Not to be twice prosecuted for the same offense or same facts under the same or different jurisdictions.

To be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense, but not to have counsel or an attorney imposed on him without his consent.

Not to be compelled to be a witness against himself.

Not to be disabled in the exercise, or deprived, of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, by unanimous verdict of a jury of twelve.

Not to be impeded in the presentation of all evidence by the defendant, without being subject to a motion in limine.

Not to be impeded in the presentation of all legal argument to the jury, up to the final instructions to the jury, except for argument on a motion in limine that cannot be made without disclosing evidence properly excluded.

Not to be impeded in the presentation of all pleadings, alternative instructions, and certified copies of applicable laws and constitutions, to the jury.

Not to have a sentence that does not separately disable the exercise of the immunity, and order deprivation of it, within the scope of that disablement.

Civil trials:
Trial by a randomly selected jury of twelve sworn to uphold applicable constitutions and laws in which the amount at issue, including costs, exceeds the equivalent of at least 15.46875 troy ounces of pure silver.

Appeals:
Not to be impeded in an appeal from a jury verdict on a writ of error or habeas corpus, according to the rules of the common law in the Union as of its founding, unless the Constitution is amended to provide otherwise.

Nonauthority:
Nonauthority shall be presumed for any claim to authority, to be strictly proved by an unbroken logical chain of derivation from a constitution or constitutional law.

Not to have any government actor exercise a power not delegated, regardless of whether one may be personally injured by such exercise.

Not to have government actors exercise powers on the pretext of being "necessary and proper" when they are not incidental to perform his official duties or to get a desired result beyond such duties.

To have delegated powers construed as narrowly, and rights, privileges, or immunities construed as broadly, as the language of the Constitution as meant and understood when ratified permits.

To have priority docketing of all prerogative writs filed by a any person as demandant in the name of the people with a court of competent jurisdiction and served on the respondant, within three sederunt days, unless the respondant requires more, but not more than 20 calendar days, including but not limited to, demurral, quo warranto, habeas corpus, procedendo, mandamus, prohibito, certiorari, and scire facias, and to have default judgment even if no proof is presented or a hearing is not held.

Not have communications, including speech, press, and education, punished or impeded, except such as instigate or direct a felony, misdemeanor, high crime, tort, piracy, or treason.

Not to impede peaceful assembly and exercise of rights in concert with others.

Not to impede assembly as militia for organizing, training, and response to threats to public safety, subject only to direction by state militia officers during a call-up.

Not to restrict keeping and bearing of weapons, equipment, and supplies commonly used by military forces, or suitable for militia, subject only to court order of disablement for being a threat to oneself or others, or to the lawful orders of militia officers during a call-up.

Not to impede or punish petition for redress of grievances.

Not to impede or punish devotion or practice of religion, or have preferential support of such by public funds, that does not instigate or direct a felony, misdemeanor, or tort.

Not to have government actors intrude into one's real property, body, or use of one's personal property, for search, seizure, or for any other reason, without consent, a declared state of war or emergency threat to public, safety, a warrant supported by an affidavit of probable cause, and just compensation for any losses incurred, for each incident.

Supervision of government actors
Not to impede or punish access to observation and recordation of any government proceeding except trial and inquestry deliberations or their equivalent, or deliberations on matters of security requiring secrecy.

Not to impede or punish receipt of records of all proceedings, and accounting for all receipts, loans, debts, and expenditures, and reporting thereof, for eventual examination prior to an election in which the issues may be reviewed.

Not to be denied accurate recording, counting, and reporting of all votes cast by eligible voters in any public election with protection from disclosure of how each voted.

Not to be denied access to all information about oneself, and either copies at cost of all documentation or to make one's own copies using one's own equipment.

Not to be denied effective low-cost remedies for getting information about oneself corrected, and use of such information restricted to that for which there is consent by oneself.

Not to be subject to illogical or impossible demands, or meddling without a clear, present, and compelling public need

Not to impede or punish association and contract to do things not unlawful, including practice of a profession or occupation, marriage, procreation, and acceptance or denial of medical prevention or treatment, except prevention of contagious diseases.

Not to impede or punish formation, conduct, and revision or dissolution of corporations, partnerships, and other trusts, in which settlor, trustee, and beneficiary are distinct persons who may not be impeded or penalized from directly appearing in any court in such capacities.

Not to have some accorded special privileges or protections that favor them over the rest of the people, in ways not essential to the performance of public duties.

Not to impede or punish travel by a citizen within, to, and from the Union and any State, territory or locality.

Not to be removed from the location of one's birth or lawful residence, or impeded from returning thereto.

Not to be enslaved or subjected to peonage except as punishment for a crime, but excepting militia, jury, witness, and other public duty.

Not to be impeded or punished for voting if one is a citizen and resident on grounds of race, color, creed, previous servitude, gender, age 18 or above, or failure to pay a tax.

Not to be denied custody and care of close relatives who are non sui juris.

Not to be neglected or abused while in custody.

Not to be denied any right, privilege, or immunity for failure to have or present a name or other form of identification.

Not to be deported without proof that one has not been natural born or naturalized as a citizen, unless one is born to a person not subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, such as a foreign diplomat or an invader.

Not to be subject to a penalty for not doing something, such as not paying a tax, if government agents refuse to allow it to be done, such as not accepting payment of a tax.

Not to be subject to a penalty or tax for failure to take some action one has no public duty to do.

Not to be denied relief from some government action for lack of an appropriation to process the application for relief, or having an official to receive the application, and to fail to recognize the demand for such relief as being granted by default.

Not to be required to procreate or to refrain from procreating.

Not to have imposed upon one any unwanted belief or expression of devotion or to be pressured into conformity with such.

Not be subject to oppressive surveillance, intrusive information collection, or having to present government-issued identification to exercise rights.

Immunities do not include entitlements to a sufficient amount of a scarce resource.


The foregoing list is not exhaustive, and further rights, privileges, and immunities are to be found in the historical record. The rule of expressio unius est exclusio alterius shall not be applied.


Amendment


Each twenty years following adoption of this Bill, upon petition by at least two percent of the general population of the polities that have adopted it as part of their constitutions, there shall be convened a convention, or sanhedrin, of twenty-three individuals, the final selection of which shall be by sortition of the candidates elected in the previous stage, with each previous stage selecting candidates in turn by alternating election and sortition, beginning with the lowest level polity in the system. The convention shall hold public hearings on proposed amendments, and propose them to a public referendum in which all citizens eligible to vote in the elections of their lowest polity may vote, to ratify additional items by a majority vote, modified items by a two-thirds vote, and deleted items by a four-fifths vote.

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On what geographical land mass is this Garden of Eden going to take place? Dark side of the Moon?

 

Oh, here is a riddle, what is the dark side of the moon during a new moon phase? See one side is lit with the sun and the other Earth's glowing reflection kind of like reverse during a full moon phase.

 

Action and reaction..

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