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The impact of big-box retailers on communities, jobs, crime, wages and


Middl3
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Year zero in the history of U.S. big-box stores was 1962: In that one year, the first Walmart, Target and Kmart stores opened. While the firms’ origins varied, their common focus was on deep discounts and suburban locations. Shoppers would arrive by car, not foot, so what mattered was highway access, acres of parking and massive scale.

In the five decades since, the American retail landscape and built environment have been profoundly altered. At the end of 2015, Wal-Mart had 4,614 stores and Supercenters in the United States, while Target operated 1,805 stores and Best Buy had 1,050. Then there are smaller chains — still huge by any measure — as well as “category killers” and all the diverse residents of the shopping-mall ecosystem. While some big-box retailers have stumbled in recent years, the rise of Internet commerce and the increasing appeal of cities has helped them remain a powerful force: Wal-Mart alone is estimated to employ approximately 1 percent of the American workforce and reported nearly $486 billion in revenue for fiscal year 2015.

All that retail and economic muscle hasn’t come without significant controversy. A 2008 study from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology indicates that Wal-Mart’s rapid expansion in the 1980s and 1990s was responsible for 40 percent to 50 percent of the decline in the number of small discount stores. According to 2014 research in Social Science Quarterly, a similar effect continues: On average, within 15 months of a new Wal-Mart store’s opening, as many as 14 existing retail establishments close. Other research has found that the arrival of Wal-Mart stores was associated with increased obesity of area residents, higher crime rates relative to communities that were not by stores, lower overall employment at the county level, and lower per-acre tax revenues than mixed-use development.

Despite such well-documented effects, big-box retailers are often courted by cities and regions, as suggested by a 2014 paper from the Harvard Kennedy School. A 2011 report by a Missouri metropolitan planning organization found that over 20 years, more than $5.8 billion had been given to private developers in the St. Louis region, with a substantial portion going to retail-oriented projects. And because big-box stores dominate the malls in which they operate, subsidies continue long after opening day: A study of more than 2,500 stores found that 73 percent of mall anchors paid no rent. Instead, mall owners use their presence to attract smaller retailers that pay elevated rates in the hope of benefiting from the big stores. Some research suggests that small retailers in such malls indeed see more patrons, and municipalities that do attract big box stores can see increased tax revenue, although there may be revenue lost when smaller businesses fail.

Still, a 2014 study from researchers at Stanford and the University of Michigan finds positive effects for wages, relative to pay levels traditionally available through small stores and firms: Indeed, the “spread of these chains has been accompanied by higher wages. Large chains and large establishments pay considerably more than small mom-and-pop establishments. Moreover, large firms and large establishments give access to managerial ranks and hierarchy, and manage rs, most of whom are first-line supervisors, are a large fraction of the retail la bor force, and earn about 20 percent more than other workers.”

Given the outsized role that chain retailers play in the U.S. economy, media coverage often focuses on business issues, such as the wave of closures hitting J.C. Penney and other firms, or the rise of “small-box” urban stores. Walmart’s overseas operations get a lot of attention, including its pledge to sell more U.S.-made goods, or an investigation into its use of bribery in Mexico. Workplace issues are also important, such as why openings at the company often attract hundreds of applicants and the company’s February 2015 announcement that it would raise the entry wage to at least $10 an hour by February 2016.

For state and local reporters, particularly those on a municipal beat, the challenge comes in understanding the positive and negative effects that the potential arrival or departure of a big-box retailer can have. For example, if politicians propose tax-increment financing or other tax-based incentives for a retail project, is that an appropriate use of public funds? What are the potential effects — long and short term — on other retailers and employers in the area? Could an expansion of low-wage jobs increase use of taxpayer-funded assistance programs?

Below are a series of studies that shed light on the effects of big-box retailers on other businesses, employment, wages, crime and health. Beat reporters also can find industry statistics and related resources from organizations such as the National Retail Federation, Retail Industry Leaders Association and the International Council of Shopping Centers.

 

Food for thought, we kill ourselves from the inside out

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These big boxes represent always low wages and destruction of small business owners.

 

Low wages generate crime and despair = higher taxes and increased demand on Social Services not to mention keeping the tax dollar leeching private prison industry sucking off a taxpayers with the support of conservative politicians.

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Destroying wetlands is fiscal irresponsibility at its' finest. Yes the wetlands are great natural habitat for a variety of

wildlife HOWEVER wetlands are a great source of natural flood control that which cost taxpayers nothing and seldom if ever fail ....... unlike tax dollar designed flood control methods.

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These big boxes represent always low wages and destruction of small business owners.

 

Low wages generate crime and despair = higher taxes and increased demand on Social Services not to mention keeping the tax dollar leeching private prison industry sucking off a taxpayers with the support of conservative politicians.

You DID read it..and yes I have NOT bought from Since they all opened..I stay with the smaller retailers

The wetlands are an eco system within themselves..now they can get filled with all that cheap plastic shit from China

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LOL that is the least you have ever said. I am shocked :o

Can you live knowing why you behave as society's child rather than ancestral results specifically spaced apart now each being an eternal one of a kind events Eternity separates currently in plain sight?

 

Your response above shows you won't, not that you cannot understand what I describe.

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Can you live knowing why you behave as society's child rather than ancestral results specifically spaced apart now each being an eternal one of a kind events Eternity separates currently in plain sight?

 

Your response above shows you won't, not that you cannot understand what I describe.

I was making a funny dude!! lighten up ^_^

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I was making a funny dude!! lighten up ^_^

Sure you were. At what other ideology than your own beliefs? All of them? Your mind called, seems your brain is missing its instinctive navigation system and keeps running into reliving past mistakes all the time expecting difference results every time.

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Sure you were. At what other ideology than your own beliefs? All of them? Your mind called, seems your brain is missing its instinctive navigation system and keeps running into reliving past mistakes all the time expecting difference results every time.

Past mistakes create future mistakes..OR if one learns one can try to avoid it them. If one does not understand where they have been they will never know where they are or where they are heading.

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Past mistakes create future mistakes..OR if one learns one can try to avoid it them. If one does not understand where they have been they will never know where they are or where they are heading.

However, what will you do when you comprehend never the same again now as a living example of self contained biologically to molecular content changing every detail that will ever exist now.

 

Where are you heading as relative to a space time continuum ignoring how and why every what, where, when, and who existed or exists so far adapting to the moment here eternally spearated currently.

 

 

You going to believe anything is possible or know the limits society can push ignoring self containment as kinetically separated here? Mind symbolism over substance or brain designed to navigate only spaced apart now?

 

You going to add your own dishonesty rule societal corruption ancestrally as done so far by your ancestry as well as my own? Power of choice because I am not suggesting anything is possible, I am describing how everything is self evident in plain sight.

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sole rule said

 

"You going to add your own dishonesty rule societal corruption ancestrally as done so far by your ancestry as well as my own? Power of choice because I am not suggesting anything is possible, I am describing how everything is self evident in plain sight."

 

Are you saying since man, society, ancestry is all farked up we should just lay down and give up? Plus "plain sight" is in the eye of the beholder. Shinning a brighter light on darkness can not be helpful?

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Are you saying since man, society, ancestry is all farked up we should just lay down and give up? Plus "plain sight" is in the eye of the beholder. Shinning a brighter light on darkness can not be helpful?

"man, society, we" vs "ancestry as lived one specific lifetime at a time"

 

Darkness of maintaining common doubts about state of minds defining reality in a global theater of promises tomorrow is actually a physical event accomplished by one spin of this planet within one phase shift of the moon, solstices and equinoxes each revolution around the star, each spiral this solar system does in this galaxy, and all other galaxies kinetically separated here.

 

Contextual enlightenment doesn't teach universal understanding of self evident displacement. It seasons reasonable coubt ancestrally in this atmosphere.

 

the evolution of personal dishonesty to absolute societal corruption saving humanity as performed by ancestry historically recorded in the moment here. What is the purpose of legal precedence? Moral superiority? agreeing to disagree philosophically? Psychologically governing ancestry with symbolismover substance, mind the invented definitions of could happen or watch your ancestors get rejected by mob mentalities you cannot stop by yourself.

 

Power of numbers, correct? I am living as one in over 7 billion where 46.2% voted for Trump's ideology and 46.8% voted for Hillary's interpretaiton of reality. How do I have an equal voice against those odds?

 

Cyberspace technology that obliderates the 24/7 concept of space time physically as everyone mentally operates by time zones of self contained results.

 

My new signature, Eternity equals molecular inorganic content to everything universally balancing as galaxies, solar systems, planetary positions and ancestries within the food chain of this atmosphere at the same time all the time.

 

E is Eternity, M3 is inorganic displacement and C3 is ancestral migration one lifetime at a time cycling through having 8 great grandparents, 4 grandparents, 2 parents of each ancestor added that can become 1 of 2 parents, evolved int 1 of 4 grandparents, that evolved into 1 of 8 great grandparents.

 

That is what my avatar represents as 40 inside angles and 16 outside edges, 5 vertical axises betwen 4 generations of ancestry at any given moment. regardless species of plant, animal, predator, prey, male, female position of ancestry ever produced by this atmosphere outside limitation of perpetual balancing molecular migration producing actual results as kinetically displkaced now.

 

Know what limits, rather than believe who, what, where, when could do such a thing from outside being here now. Or simply stop thinking outside of a boxed a stoire of cultured opinion kept in play socially historically..

 

What was Einstein's definition of insanity? E=mc

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You DID read it..and yes I have NOT bought from Since they all opened..I stay with the smaller retailers

The wetlands are an eco system within themselves..now they can get filled with all that cheap plastic shit from China

 

 

We simply refuse to shop Wal-Mart period. My experience working retail for a few years in addition to owning a landscape maintenance operation taught me plenty about pricing and such. I am a pro at Price checking to which I applied my expertise at discovering that local stores often are no more expensive than big box retailers. Which further supported the position that driving time and cost of gasoline need to be applied to cost of purchases.

 

EVERYTHING at big box stores is not a bargain and every item is not necessarily less expensive HOWEVER explains large big box stores advertising budgets that convince consumers otherwise = consumer manipulation. Many items in my travels were as little as one penny less

and sometimes more. To save at big box stores one needs to buy a ton of stuff every time one shops.

 

Many items found at big box stores can be found at grocery stores often for less. Local hardware stores are evermore competitive.

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These big boxes represent always low wages and destruction of small business owners.

 

Low wages generate crime and despair = higher taxes and increased demand on Social Services not to mention keeping the tax dollar leeching private prison industry sucking off a taxpayers with the support of conservative politicians.

 

Is it true that the trust fund is just a bunch of government IOUs and therefore worthless?

 

The trust fund does just contain IOUs, but they're not worthless. If they are, someone should tell that to the very smart and very rich people who bought $475 billion in government bonds last year to finance the deficits President Bush and Congress created, and to the central banks of Japan, China, and many other countries that hold a large share of their assets in U.S. government bonds.

When the trust fund was created in 1935, the law stipulated that any excess revenues coming into the Social Security system must be used to purchase federal government bonds. (At the time, the stock market had just lost over 75% of its value and was understood to be unsafe.) Federal bonds are absolutely safe; the government of the United States has never defaulted on any bond obligation.

--- FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

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