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Sine Qua Non.............


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Sine qua non - "Without which not".

 

The things, "without which not", life is not worth LIVING.

Like FREEDOM from harrassment and intrusion.

Like PRIVACY.

lIKE FREEDOM OF SPEECH, TO SPEAK YOUR MIND, WITHOUT BEING DESTROYED BY A GOVT. ENTITY, ON ORDERS OF A DESPOT, A TYRANT, A MEGALOMANIACAL EGOMANIAC.

 

 

****************************

Our Founding Fathers, during the FIRST war, where Muslims wanted to kill us, out of jealousy, the "Barbary Coast conflict", our founders PRINTED THE Q'OUR'AN, IN ITS ENTIREITY, TO SHOW HOW MUSLIMS WERE TAUGHT FROM AN EARLY AGE, HOW THEIR "HOLIEST OF HOLIES" ORDERED THEM TO KILL ANYONE WHO WAS NOT MUSLIM, (OR STEAL THEIR GOODS AND FORCE THEM TO DENOUNCE THEIR RELIGION), anyone who was on or near any Muslim country. This was 200 years ago.

 

But STILL, Moronic Bleeding Heart (and Bleeding Intelligence) Liberals STILL say, "Oh, no, 90% of all Muslims LOVE Christians and Jews, and wish them ONLY Candy, Flowers and Kisses......."

 

Memorial Day: 1801 First War With The United States By Islam ~ Remembering Those Who Were Enslaved & Killed.

Posted on May 27, 2013

0

 

 

“…that it was founded on the Laws of their Prophet, that it was written in their Koran, that all nations who should not have acknowledged their authority were sinners, that it was their right and duty to make war upon them wherever they could be found, and to make slaves of all they could take as Prisoners, and that every Musselman (Muslim) who should be slain in Battle was sure to go to Paradise.”

President Thomas Jefferson

In 1784 Congress had appointed Jefferson, John Adams and Benjamin Franklin as peace commissioners to negotiate treaties of amity and commerce with the principal states of Europe and the Mediterranean — including the Islam’s Barbary states.

 

Already in Europe, the commissioners quickly learned that the Europeans made peace with the Barbary powers through treaties that involved [EXTORTION] aka; annual payments of tribute — sometimes euphemistically called annuities. The merchant vessels of any country without such a treaty were at the mercy of the state-sponsored maritime muslim marauders known as corsairs, sometimes mislabeled pirates.[3] The commissioners reported this to Congress and sought guidance.

The Barbary challenge to American merchant shipping sparked a great deal of debate over how to cope with muslim corsair aggression, actual or threatened. Jefferson’s early view guided him in future years. In November 1784, he doubted the American people would be willing to pay annual [EXTORTION] tribute. “Would it not be better to offer them an equal treaty. If they refuse, why not go to war with them?”[4] A month later, having learned that a small American brig had been seized by a Moroccan muslim corsair in the Atlantic, he emphasized the hard line: “Our trade to Portugal, Spain, and the Mediterranean is annihilated unless we do something decisive. Tribute or war is the usual alternative of these muslim pirates. If we yeild [sic] the former, it will require sums which our people will feel. Why not begin a navy then and decide on war? We cannot begin in a better cause nor against a weaker foe.”[5] Jefferson was convinced this solution would be more honorable, more effective, and less expensive than paying [EXTORTION] tribute.[6]

 

President George Washington

President Washington warned Congress in December 1793: “If we desire to avoid insult, we must be able to repel it; if we desire to secure peace…it must be known that we are at all times ready for war.”

George Washington’s Opinion Of True Islam ~ “Crush Them”

“Let me ask you, my dear marquis, in such an enlightened, in such a liberal age, how is it possible that the great maritime powers of Europe should submit to pay an annual tribute to the little piratical states of Barbary?Would to Heaven we had a navy able to reform those enemies to mankind or crush them into non-existence.”

President George Washington to Lafayette, Aug 15, 1786

In addition, he believed that America wanted to be a trading nation, and “to carry as much as possible” in our own vessels. “But,” he wrote James Monroe, “this will require a protecting force on the sea.

Otherwise the smallest powers in Europe, every one which possesses a single ship of the line may dictate to us, and enforce their demands by captures on our commerce. Some naval force then is necessary if we mean to be commercial.” However, for the task then before him, he added, “if it be decided that their peace shall be bought it shall engage my most earnest endeavours.”[7]

And that would be the approach John Adams favored. He believed that paying [EXTORTION] tribute would be more economical and easier than convincing the people of the United States to fund the building of a navy.[8]

Congress did decide that peace was to be bought. They authorized $80,000 for negotiations. The Commissioners sent American consul Thomas Barclay to Morocco and Connecticut sea captain John Lamb to Algiers. In Morocco the draft treaty Barclay carried with him was accepted with only minor changes. Jefferson, Adams and Congress were very satisfied; the Morocco treaty made American vessels safe from Moroccan muslim corsairs and there was no call for future [EXTORTION] tribute.[9]

The offer of an equal treaty did not work elsewhere in Barbary. Algiers was much more dependent than Morocco on the fruits of muslim corsairing — captured goods, slaves, the ransoms they brought, and [EXTORTION] tribute — and less amenable to a peace treaty with the United States.

While planning the Barbary missions the American Commissioners had learned that two American ships — the Maria and the Dauphin — had been captured by Algerian muslim corsairs. As a result, Lamb was instructed to negotiate ransom for the captives in Algiers as well as a peace treaty to prevent further attacks on American vessels.

This proved impossible with the limited budget Congress had approved.[10]

After the failure of the Lamb mission in 1786 Jefferson made further futile attempts to launch negotiations with the dey of Algiers, both from Paris and later as Secretary of State under President Washington. During these years American vessels in the Mediterranean sailed in convoy with European ships, often with Portuguese naval protection, flew European flags illegally, or ventured out at considerable risk from Barbary muslim corsairs. In the Atlantic, the Morocco treaty provided protection from Moroccan muslim corsairs and the Portuguese navy kept those from Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli in the Mediterranean. That was changed by an Algiers-Portugal treaty in 1793. In a very few months Algerian muslim corsairs seized eleven American merchant vessels — at least ten of them in the Atlantic — with over 100 crewmen and passengers.[11]

Jefferson was no longer Secretary of State in 1795 when America finally did make peace with Algiers, agreeing to pay annual [EXTORTION] tribute. The following year, once the US met its initial [EXTORTION] treaty commitments, the Americans held in Algiers were freed, including the few survivors from the Maria and the Dauphin. Treaties were also concluded with Tripoli, in 1796, and Tunis in 1797. Soon after, American consuls were appointed in each Barbary state.[12]

 

The news from these consuls that awaited the new administration in 1801 was distressing. Tension was particularly great with Tripoli. Pasha Yusuf Qaramanli, feeling slighted by the Americans, was threatening war. He was convinced the Americans treated him less well than they did the other Barbary rulers. He was right, but Tunis and Algiers had negotiated better treaties. In October 1800, five months before Jefferson took office, the American consul in Tripoli, James Cathcart, summarized the long, rambling messages he had been sending the Secretary of State and others for a year or more. In short, he said, the pasha’s message is

“if you don’t give me a present I will forge a pretext to capture your defenseless merchantmen; he likewise says that he expects an answer as soon as possible, and that any delay on our side will only serve to injure our own interests….”[13]

A week after that was written in October 1800, a Tripolitan muslim corsair took a captive American brig, the Catharine, into Tripoli. The pasha immediately ordered the Catharine and her crew released and dismissed the muslim corsair captain. His explanation: he had told the president that “before he would take any measures whatsoever against the United States” he would wait for the President’s answer to his letter of five months earlier (May 25, 1800).

 

Tripoli

First War With The United States

Later, however, in a meeting with Cathcart, Captain Carpenter of the Catharine and local officials, the Pashaw declared that he wanted money from America, that he would wait six more months for an acceptable reply to his letter to the President, and that he would declare war on the United States if the answer did not arrive in that time or was unsatisfactory.

 

Memorial Day: 1801 First War With The United States By Islam ~ Remembering Those Who Were Enslaved & Killed.

Posted on May 27, 2013

0

 

 

“…that it was founded on the Laws of their Prophet, that it was written in their Koran, that all nations who should not have acknowledged their authority were sinners, that it was their right and duty to make war upon them wherever they could be found, and to make slaves of all they could take as Prisoners, and that every Musselman (Muslim) who should be slain in Battle was sure to go to Paradise.”

President Thomas Jefferson

In 1784 Congress had appointed Jefferson, John Adams and Benjamin Franklin as peace commissioners to negotiate treaties of amity and commerce with the principal states of Europe and the Mediterranean — including the Islam’s Barbary states.

 

Already in Europe, the commissioners quickly learned that the Europeans made peace with the Barbary powers through treaties that involved [EXTORTION] aka; annual payments of tribute — sometimes euphemistically called annuities. The merchant vessels of any country without such a treaty were at the mercy of the state-sponsored maritime muslim marauders known as corsairs, sometimes mislabeled pirates.[3] The commissioners reported this to Congress and sought guidance.

The Barbary challenge to American merchant shipping sparked a great deal of debate over how to cope with muslim corsair aggression, actual or threatened. Jefferson’s early view guided him in future years. In November 1784, he doubted the American people would be willing to pay annual [EXTORTION] tribute. “Would it not be better to offer them an equal treaty. If they refuse, why not go to war with them?”[4] A month later, having learned that a small American brig had been seized by a Moroccan muslim corsair in the Atlantic, he emphasized the hard line: “Our trade to Portugal, Spain, and the Mediterranean is annihilated unless we do something decisive. Tribute or war is the usual alternative of these muslim pirates. If we yeild [sic] the former, it will require sums which our people will feel. Why not begin a navy then and decide on war? We cannot begin in a better cause nor against a weaker foe.”[5] Jefferson was convinced this solution would be more honorable, more effective, and less expensive than paying [EXTORTION] tribute.[6]

 

President George Washington

President Washington warned Congress in December 1793: “If we desire to avoid insult, we must be able to repel it; if we desire to secure peace…it must be known that we are at all times ready for war.”

George Washington’s Opinion Of True Islam ~ “Crush Them”

“Let me ask you, my dear marquis, in such an enlightened, in such a liberal age, how is it possible that the great maritime powers of Europe should submit to pay an annual tribute to the little piratical states of Barbary?Would to Heaven we had a navy able to reform those enemies to mankind or crush them into non-existence.”

President George Washington to Lafayette, Aug 15, 1786

In addition, he believed that America wanted to be a trading nation, and “to carry as much as possible” in our own vessels. “But,” he wrote James Monroe, “this will require a protecting force on the sea.

Otherwise the smallest powers in Europe, every one which possesses a single ship of the line may dictate to us, and enforce their demands by captures on our commerce. Some naval force then is necessary if we mean to be commercial.” However, for the task then before him, he added, “if it be decided that their peace shall be bought it shall engage my most earnest endeavours.”[7]

And that would be the approach John Adams favored. He believed that paying [EXTORTION] tribute would be more economical and easier than convincing the people of the United States to fund the building of a navy.[8]

Congress did decide that peace was to be bought. They authorized $80,000 for negotiations. The Commissioners sent American consul Thomas Barclay to Morocco and Connecticut sea captain John Lamb to Algiers. In Morocco the draft treaty Barclay carried with him was accepted with only minor changes. Jefferson, Adams and Congress were very satisfied; the Morocco treaty made American vessels safe from Moroccan muslim corsairs and there was no call for future [EXTORTION] tribute.[9]

The offer of an equal treaty did not work elsewhere in Barbary. Algiers was much more dependent than Morocco on the fruits of muslim corsairing — captured goods, slaves, the ransoms they brought, and [EXTORTION] tribute — and less amenable to a peace treaty with the United States.

While planning the Barbary missions the American Commissioners had learned that two American ships — the Maria and the Dauphin — had been captured by Algerian muslim corsairs. As a result, Lamb was instructed to negotiate ransom for the captives in Algiers as well as a peace treaty to prevent further attacks on American vessels.

This proved impossible with the limited budget Congress had approved.[10]

After the failure of the Lamb mission in 1786 Jefferson made further futile attempts to launch negotiations with the dey of Algiers, both from Paris and later as Secretary of State under President Washington. During these years American vessels in the Mediterranean sailed in convoy with European ships, often with Portuguese naval protection, flew European flags illegally, or ventured out at considerable risk from Barbary muslim corsairs. In the Atlantic, the Morocco treaty provided protection from Moroccan muslim corsairs and the Portuguese navy kept those from Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli in the Mediterranean. That was changed by an Algiers-Portugal treaty in 1793. In a very few months Algerian muslim corsairs seized eleven American merchant vessels — at least ten of them in the Atlantic — with over 100 crewmen and passengers.[11]

Jefferson was no longer Secretary of State in 1795 when America finally did make peace with Algiers, agreeing to pay annual [EXTORTION] tribute. The following year, once the US met its initial [EXTORTION] treaty commitments, the Americans held in Algiers were freed, including the few survivors from the Maria and the Dauphin. Treaties were also concluded with Tripoli, in 1796, and Tunis in 1797. Soon after, American consuls were appointed in each Barbary state.[12]

 

The news from these consuls that awaited the new administration in 1801 was distressing. Tension was particularly great with Tripoli. Pasha Yusuf Qaramanli, feeling slighted by the Americans, was threatening war. He was convinced the Americans treated him less well than they did the other Barbary rulers. He was right, but Tunis and Algiers had negotiated better treaties. In October 1800, five months before Jefferson took office, the American consul in Tripoli, James Cathcart, summarized the long, rambling messages he had been sending the Secretary of State and others for a year or more. In short, he said, the pasha’s message is

“if you don’t give me a present I will forge a pretext to capture your defenseless merchantmen; he likewise says that he expects an answer as soon as possible, and that any delay on our side will only serve to injure our own interests….”[13]

A week after that was written in October 1800, a Tripolitan muslim corsair took a captive American brig, the Catharine, into Tripoli. The pasha immediately ordered the Catharine and her crew released and dismissed the muslim corsair captain. His explanation: he had told the president that “before he would take any measures whatsoever against the United States” he would wait for the President’s answer to his letter of five months earlier (May 25, 1800).

 

Tripoli

First War With The United States

Later, however, in a meeting with Cathcart, Captain Carpenter of the Catharine and local officials, the Pashaw declared that he wanted money from America, that he would wait six more months for an acceptable reply to his letter to the President, and that he would declare war on the United States if the answer did not arrive in that time or was unsatisfactory.

 

Memorial Day: 1801 First War With The United States By Islam ~ Remembering Those Who Were Enslaved & Killed.

Posted on May 27, 2013

0

 

 

“…that it was founded on the Laws of their Prophet, that it was written in their Koran, that all nations who should not have acknowledged their authority were sinners, that it was their right and duty to make war upon them wherever they could be found, and to make slaves of all they could take as Prisoners, and that every Musselman (Muslim) who should be slain in Battle was sure to go to Paradise.”

President Thomas Jefferson

In 1784 Congress had appointed Jefferson, John Adams and Benjamin Franklin as peace commissioners to negotiate treaties of amity and commerce with the principal states of Europe and the Mediterranean — including the Islam’s Barbary states.

 

Already in Europe, the commissioners quickly learned that the Europeans made peace with the Barbary powers through treaties that involved [EXTORTION] aka; annual payments of tribute — sometimes euphemistically called annuities. The merchant vessels of any country without such a treaty were at the mercy of the state-sponsored maritime muslim marauders known as corsairs, sometimes mislabeled pirates.[3] The commissioners reported this to Congress and sought guidance.

The Barbary challenge to American merchant shipping sparked a great deal of debate over how to cope with muslim corsair aggression, actual or threatened. Jefferson’s early view guided him in future years. In November 1784, he doubted the American people would be willing to pay annual [EXTORTION] tribute. “Would it not be better to offer them an equal treaty. If they refuse, why not go to war with them?”[4] A month later, having learned that a small American brig had been seized by a Moroccan muslim corsair in the Atlantic, he emphasized the hard line: “Our trade to Portugal, Spain, and the Mediterranean is annihilated unless we do something decisive. Tribute or war is the usual alternative of these muslim pirates. If we yeild [sic] the former, it will require sums which our people will feel. Why not begin a navy then and decide on war? We cannot begin in a better cause nor against a weaker foe.”[5] Jefferson was convinced this solution would be more honorable, more effective, and less expensive than paying [EXTORTION] tribute.[6]

 

President George Washington

President Washington warned Congress in December 1793: “If we desire to avoid insult, we must be able to repel it; if we desire to secure peace…it must be known that we are at all times ready for war.”

George Washington’s Opinion Of True Islam ~ “Crush Them”

“Let me ask you, my dear marquis, in such an enlightened, in such a liberal age, how is it possible that the great maritime powers of Europe should submit to pay an annual tribute to the little piratical states of Barbary?Would to Heaven we had a navy able to reform those enemies to mankind or crush them into non-existence.”

President George Washington to Lafayette, Aug 15, 1786

In addition, he believed that America wanted to be a trading nation, and “to carry as much as possible” in our own vessels. “But,” he wrote James Monroe, “this will require a protecting force on the sea.

Otherwise the smallest powers in Europe, every one which possesses a single ship of the line may dictate to us, and enforce their demands by captures on our commerce. Some naval force then is necessary if we mean to be commercial.” However, for the task then before him, he added, “if it be decided that their peace shall be bought it shall engage my most earnest endeavours.”[7]

And that would be the approach John Adams favored. He believed that paying [EXTORTION] tribute would be more economical and easier than convincing the people of the United States to fund the building of a navy.[8]

Congress did decide that peace was to be bought. They authorized $80,000 for negotiations. The Commissioners sent American consul Thomas Barclay to Morocco and Connecticut sea captain John Lamb to Algiers. In Morocco the draft treaty Barclay carried with him was accepted with only minor changes. Jefferson, Adams and Congress were very satisfied; the Morocco treaty made American vessels safe from Moroccan muslim corsairs and there was no call for future [EXTORTION] tribute.[9]

The offer of an equal treaty did not work elsewhere in Barbary. Algiers was much more dependent than Morocco on the fruits of muslim corsairing — captured goods, slaves, the ransoms they brought, and [EXTORTION] tribute — and less amenable to a peace treaty with the United States.

While planning the Barbary missions the American Commissioners had learned that two American ships — the Maria and the Dauphin — had been captured by Algerian muslim corsairs. As a result, Lamb was instructed to negotiate ransom for the captives in Algiers as well as a peace treaty to prevent further attacks on American vessels.

This proved impossible with the limited budget Congress had approved.[10]

After the failure of the Lamb mission in 1786 Jefferson made further futile attempts to launch negotiations with the dey of Algiers, both from Paris and later as Secretary of State under President Washington. During these years American vessels in the Mediterranean sailed in convoy with European ships, often with Portuguese naval protection, flew European flags illegally, or ventured out at considerable risk from Barbary muslim corsairs. In the Atlantic, the Morocco treaty provided protection from Moroccan muslim corsairs and the Portuguese navy kept those from Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli in the Mediterranean. That was changed by an Algiers-Portugal treaty in 1793. In a very few months Algerian muslim corsairs seized eleven American merchant vessels — at least ten of them in the Atlantic — with over 100 crewmen and passengers.[11]

Jefferson was no longer Secretary of State in 1795 when America finally did make peace with Algiers, agreeing to pay annual [EXTORTION] tribute. The following year, once the US met its initial [EXTORTION] treaty commitments, the Americans held in Algiers were freed, including the few survivors from the Maria and the Dauphin. Treaties were also concluded with Tripoli, in 1796, and Tunis in 1797. Soon after, American consuls were appointed in each Barbary state.[12]

 

The news from these consuls that awaited the new administration in 1801 was distressing. Tension was particularly great with Tripoli. Pasha Yusuf Qaramanli, feeling slighted by the Americans, was threatening war. He was convinced the Americans treated him less well than they did the other Barbary rulers. He was right, but Tunis and Algiers had negotiated better treaties. In October 1800, five months before Jefferson took office, the American consul in Tripoli, James Cathcart, summarized the long, rambling messages he had been sending the Secretary of State and others for a year or more. In short, he said, the pasha’s message is

“if you don’t give me a present I will forge a pretext to capture your defenseless merchantmen; he likewise says that he expects an answer as soon as possible, and that any delay on our side will only serve to injure our own interests….”[13]

A week after that was written in October 1800, a Tripolitan muslim corsair took a captive American brig, the Catharine, into Tripoli. The pasha immediately ordered the Catharine and her crew released and dismissed the muslim corsair captain. His explanation: he had told the president that “before he would take any measures whatsoever against the United States” he would wait for the President’s answer to his letter of five months earlier (May 25, 1800).

 

Tripoli

First War With The United States

Later, however, in a meeting with Cathcart, Captain Carpenter of the Catharine and local officials, the Pashaw declared that he wanted money from America, that he would wait six more months for an acceptable reply to his letter to the President, and that he would declare war on the United States if the answer did not arrive in that time or was unsatisfactory.

 

Memorial Day: 1801 First War With The United States By Islam ~ Remembering Those Who Were Enslaved & Killed.

Posted on May 27, 2013

0

 

 

“…that it was founded on the Laws of their Prophet, that it was written in their Koran, that all nations who should not have acknowledged their authority were sinners, that it was their right and duty to make war upon them wherever they could be found, and to make slaves of all they could take as Prisoners, and that every Musselman (Muslim) who should be slain in Battle was sure to go to Paradise.”

President Thomas Jefferson

In 1784 Congress had appointed Jefferson, John Adams and Benjamin Franklin as peace commissioners to negotiate treaties of amity and commerce with the principal states of Europe and the Mediterranean — including the Islam’s Barbary states.

 

Already in Europe, the commissioners quickly learned that the Europeans made peace with the Barbary powers through treaties that involved [EXTORTION] aka; annual payments of tribute — sometimes euphemistically called annuities. The merchant vessels of any country without such a treaty were at the mercy of the state-sponsored maritime muslim marauders known as corsairs, sometimes mislabeled pirates.[3] The commissioners reported this to Congress and sought guidance.

The Barbary challenge to American merchant shipping sparked a great deal of debate over how to cope with muslim corsair aggression, actual or threatened. Jefferson’s early view guided him in future years. In November 1784, he doubted the American people would be willing to pay annual [EXTORTION] tribute. “Would it not be better to offer them an equal treaty. If they refuse, why not go to war with them?”[4] A month later, having learned that a small American brig had been seized by a Moroccan muslim corsair in the Atlantic, he emphasized the hard line: “Our trade to Portugal, Spain, and the Mediterranean is annihilated unless we do something decisive. Tribute or war is the usual alternative of these muslim pirates. If we yeild [sic] the former, it will require sums which our people will feel. Why not begin a navy then and decide on war? We cannot begin in a better cause nor against a weaker foe.”[5] Jefferson was convinced this solution would be more honorable, more effective, and less expensive than paying [EXTORTION] tribute.[6]

 

President George Washington

President Washington warned Congress in December 1793: “If we desire to avoid insult, we must be able to repel it; if we desire to secure peace…it must be known that we are at all times ready for war.”

George Washington’s Opinion Of True Islam ~ “Crush Them”

“Let me ask you, my dear marquis, in such an enlightened, in such a liberal age, how is it possible that the great maritime powers of Europe should submit to pay an annual tribute to the little piratical states of Barbary?Would to Heaven we had a navy able to reform those enemies to mankind or crush them into non-existence.”

President George Washington to Lafayette, Aug 15, 1786

In addition, he believed that America wanted to be a trading nation, and “to carry as much as possible” in our own vessels. “But,” he wrote James Monroe, “this will require a protecting force on the sea.

Otherwise the smallest powers in Europe, every one which possesses a single ship of the line may dictate to us, and enforce their demands by captures on our commerce. Some naval force then is necessary if we mean to be commercial.” However, for the task then before him, he added, “if it be decided that their peace shall be bought it shall engage my most earnest endeavours.”[7]

And that would be the approach John Adams favored. He believed that paying [EXTORTION] tribute would be more economical and easier than convincing the people of the United States to fund the building of a navy.[8]

Congress did decide that peace was to be bought. They authorized $80,000 for negotiations. The Commissioners sent American consul Thomas Barclay to Morocco and Connecticut sea captain John Lamb to Algiers. In Morocco the draft treaty Barclay carried with him was accepted with only minor changes. Jefferson, Adams and Congress were very satisfied; the Morocco treaty made American vessels safe from Moroccan muslim corsairs and there was no call for future [EXTORTION] tribute.[9]

The offer of an equal treaty did not work elsewhere in Barbary. Algiers was much more dependent than Morocco on the fruits of muslim corsairing — captured goods, slaves, the ransoms they brought, and [EXTORTION] tribute — and less amenable to a peace treaty with the United States.

While planning the Barbary missions the American Commissioners had learned that two American ships — the Maria and the Dauphin — had been captured by Algerian muslim corsairs. As a result, Lamb was instructed to negotiate ransom for the captives in Algiers as well as a peace treaty to prevent further attacks on American vessels.

This proved impossible with the limited budget Congress had approved.[10]

After the failure of the Lamb mission in 1786 Jefferson made further futile attempts to launch negotiations with the dey of Algiers, both from Paris and later as Secretary of State under President Washington. During these years American vessels in the Mediterranean sailed in convoy with European ships, often with Portuguese naval protection, flew European flags illegally, or ventured out at considerable risk from Barbary muslim corsairs. In the Atlantic, the Morocco treaty provided protection from Moroccan muslim corsairs and the Portuguese navy kept those from Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli in the Mediterranean. That was changed by an Algiers-Portugal treaty in 1793. In a very few months Algerian muslim corsairs seized eleven American merchant vessels — at least ten of them in the Atlantic — with over 100 crewmen and passengers.[11]

Jefferson was no longer Secretary of State in 1795 when America finally did make peace with Algiers, agreeing to pay annual [EXTORTION] tribute. The following year, once the US met its initial [EXTORTION] treaty commitments, the Americans held in Algiers were freed, including the few survivors from the Maria and the Dauphin. Treaties were also concluded with Tripoli, in 1796, and Tunis in 1797. Soon after, American consuls were appointed in each Barbary state.[12]

 

The news from these consuls that awaited the new administration in 1801 was distressing. Tension was particularly great with Tripoli. Pasha Yusuf Qaramanli, feeling slighted by the Americans, was threatening war. He was convinced the Americans treated him less well than they did the other Barbary rulers. He was right, but Tunis and Algiers had negotiated better treaties. In October 1800, five months before Jefferson took office, the American consul in Tripoli, James Cathcart, summarized the long, rambling messages he had been sending the Secretary of State and others for a year or more. In short, he said, the pasha’s message is

“if you don’t give me a present I will forge a pretext to capture your defenseless merchantmen; he likewise says that he expects an answer as soon as possible, and that any delay on our side will only serve to injure our own interests….”[13]

A week after that was written in October 1800, a Tripolitan muslim corsair took a captive American brig, the Catharine, into Tripoli. The pasha immediately ordered the Catharine and her crew released and dismissed the muslim corsair captain. His explanation: he had told the president that “before he would take any measures whatsoever against the United States” he would wait for the President’s answer to his letter of five months earlier (May 25, 1800).

 

Tripoli

First War With The United States

Later, however, in a meeting with Cathcart, Captain Carpenter of the Catharine and local officials, the Pashaw declared that he wanted money from America, that he would wait six more months for an acceptable reply to his letter to the President, and that he would declare war on the United States if the answer did not arrive in that time or was unsatisfactory.

 



*****************************************************************************************

 

 

hist-pt-thomas-jefferson-barak-obama-soc

Already in Europe, the commissioners quickly learned that the Europeans made peace with the Barbary powers through treaties that involved [EXTORTION] aka; annual payments of tribute — sometimes euphemistically called annuities. The merchant vessels of any country without such a treaty were at the mercy of the state-sponsored maritime muslim marauders known as corsairs, sometimes mislabeled pirates.[3] The commissioners reported this to Congress and sought guidance.

The Barbary challenge to American merchant shipping sparked a great deal of debate over how to cope with muslim corsair aggression, actual or threatened. Jefferson’s early view guided him in future years. In November 1784, he doubted the American people would be willing to pay annual [EXTORTION] tribute. “Would it not be better to offer them an equal treaty. If they refuse, why not go to war with them?”[4] A month later, having learned that a small American brig had been seized by a Moroccan muslim corsair in the Atlantic, he emphasized the hard line: “Our trade to Portugal, Spain, and the Mediterranean is annihilated unless we do something decisive. Tribute or war is the usual alternative of these muslim pirates. If we yeild [sic] the former, it will require sums which our people will feel. Why not begin a navy then and decide on war? We cannot begin in a better cause nor against a weaker foe.”[5] Jefferson was convinced this solution would be more honorable, more effective, and less expensive than paying [EXTORTION] tribute.[6]

george_washington.jpg?w=623&h=759

President George Washington

President Washington warned Congress in December 1793: “If we desire to avoid insult, we must be able to repel it; if we desire to secure peace…it must be known that we are at all times ready for war.” George Washington’s Opinion Of True Islam ~ “Crush Them”

“Let me ask you, my dear marquis, in such an enlightened, in such a liberal age, how is it possible that the great maritime powers of Europe should submit to pay an annual tribute to the little piratical states of Barbary?Would to Heaven we had a navy able to reform those enemies to mankind or crush them into non-existence.”

In addition, he believed that America wanted to be a trading nation, and “to carry as much as possible” in our own vessels. “But,” he wrote James Monroe, “this will require a protecting force on the sea.

Otherwise the smallest powers in Europe, every one which possesses a single ship of the line may dictate to us, and enforce their demands by captures on our commerce. Some naval force then is necessary if we mean to be commercial.” However, for the task then before him, he added, “if it be decided that their peace shall be bought it shall engage my most earnest endeavours.”[7]

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